Mumps (Mumps, mumps) - an acute infectious
disease characterized by fever, general intoxication,
the defeat of the salivary glands, and sometimes sexual, and other glands, nervous
system. The causative agent of the disease - a virus, which is characterized by high infectivity and low stability in the external environment. The source of infection - a sick man, he becomes contagious 1-2 days before the appearance of symptoms of the disease and in the first 5 days of illness.
The virus is transmitted by airborne droplets. The susceptibility to the disease is high. Most children get sick. Persons who suffer from male mumps 1.5 times more often than women.
With the penetration of the body, the virus replicates in the nasopharynx and
then it gets into the salivary glands, where they find the best conditions for
reproduction. Develops characteristic inflammation of the parotid salivary
gland, which is why the face becomes puffy and makes a kind
After suffering a disease of any severity develops
persistent immunity to reinfection.
The incubation period lasts from 11 to 23 days.
There is a short prodromal (initial) period - marked weakness, malaise, muscle aches, headache, chills, sleep disturbance
and appetite. With the development of inflammatory changes in salivary gland
there are signs of its defeat: dry mouth, pain in the ear,
aggravated by chewing, talking.
The disease can occur in
light and in the severe form. Depending on the temperature can
be from subfebrile to 40C, intoxication is also dependent on
severity. The characteristic manifestation of the disease - the defeat of the salivary
glands, usually the parotid. The gland increases in size, there is a
sore to touch, which is especially pronounced in front of the ear,
behind the ear lobe and mastoid region. The skin over
inflamed gland tense, shiny, swelling can
spread to the neck. Swelling persists for about 3-10 days. After
penetration into the blood, mumps virus reaches the other glandular
authorities - are suffering the pancreas
(Causing acute pancreatitis), testicles (orchitis), the ovaries (oophoritis, Owari).
The virus is able to penetrate into the brain and then developing the viral
meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the pia mater and the brain). Inflammation of the testis and epididymis. Inflammation of the testis more often in adults.
In most cases 5-7 Day of onset
body temperature rises again to 39-40S, there are strong pains
in the scrotum and testicles. The testicle increases, reaching sizes
goose egg, it becomes painful. Inflammation of the testicle can
preceded by the defeat of the salivary glands, or occur simultaneously.
Sometimes inflammation of the testicle develop in the absence of lesions of the salivary
glands. In 3-17% of patients are affected both testicles.
In half of the cases (in the absence of a special treat) inflammation
eggs in mumps in 1-2 months it is
decrease with the weakening of the function. In the case of bilateral reduction
after testicular inflammation in mumps often
The defeat of the central nervous system in mumps
is one in ten children, boys 3 times more likely than
In most cases there is a fever on day 4-7 illness again
body temperature rises to 39C and above, there is a strong
headache, vomiting. The patient developed inflammation of the membranes
In 25-30% of patients develop an inflammation of the meninges
with the onset of inflammation of the salivary glands, one in ten
It may precede, but many patients can develop without hitting
salivary glands. Recovery from an inflammation of the meninges at
mumps is slow.
In some patients, along with inflammation meninges
develops inflammation of the brain, which is manifested by lethargy,
drowsiness, impaired consciousness. Subsequently they may have
changes in the central nervous system in the form of violations
behavior, headaches, seizures, deafness in one ear, violations
Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease
Laboratory methods for confirmation of the diagnosis - Virus isolation
mumps from the blood, swabs from the throat, the secret of the parotid gland,
cerebrospinal fluid and urine. immunofluorescence techniques
can detect viruses in 2-3 days.
Usually performed at home. Patients with central nervous
system and inflammation of the testicle are sent to the infectious diseases hospital.
Assigned to bed rest for 10 days.
Patients with inflammation of the salivary glands is moderately liquid recommended
lacto-vegetarian food, limit white bread, fat, rough
fiber, after each meal you need to rinse your mouth.
With the development of inflammation of the testicle is assigned jockstrap, prednisolone
Scheme 5-7 days. When meningitis apply corticosteroid
drugs (prednisone, hydrocortisone), conduct lumbar punctures,
intravenously 40% solution of hexamine. When we developed acute
pancreatitis appointed liquid light diet, atropine, papaverine, cold
on the abdomen, the drugs that inhibit enzymes - gordoks, contrycal
Medicinal drugs acting directly on the mumps virus, does not exist.
To create immunity to mumps,
provided vaccination of children with 1.5 years, as a vaccine
using live attenuated mumps virus. Vaccines
Mumps: Priorix - measles vaccine for the prevention,
mumps and rubella; Trimovaks - combined vaccine
for the prevention of measles, mumps and rubella; Mumps vaccine live
dry; Imovaks oreyon.
Vaccination is carried out once. It should be children,
adolescents and adult men, without a history of mumps and
those who in the past it was not carried out.
Children up to 10 years in contact with the patient, not bolevshie
mumps, subject to dissociation for 21 days from start
contact with the patient.