One of the serious disturbances on somnologicalModern classification is PAS - sleep apnea syndrome, which is the appearance of respiratory pauses of different origins during sleep. Since sleep is one of the most important processes of life, discomfort caused by oxygen starvation, it adversely affected his result.
Frequent unconscious and conscious awakening,changes in the cardiovascular system, the lack of full cycles of sleep and wakefulness leads to the development of many seemingly unrelated symptoms. They are characteristic for the center, and for obstructive sleep apnea.
- nocturnal symptoms
Night waking feeling of suffocation and shortness of breath,sleep disorders and insomnia, but such a popular symptom as snoring is characteristic only for obstructive sleep apnea, can also develop nocturia, sweating, frequent awakenings.
- Daytime symptoms
Results of restless sleep and oxygenlack of day manifest themselves fatigue and tiredness. Additionally, symptoms may increase damage to other systems - cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine, and others.
Obstructive sleep apnea - prettycommon phenomenon and is about 90% of all cases of treatment to the doctor about sleep apnea. This option apnea is caused by peripheral obstructions breath that often lotsirovany in the nasopharynx. 10% of all cases of sleep apnea at night there is the central type, and it is the least studied scenario. Poor understanding of the mechanisms of central sleep apnea, depression of the respiratory center and the disappearance of his automatism regimens central sleep apnea also neraznoobrazny and insufficiently effektivny.Sindrom curse Ondine was described in 1962 in a patient with the disease pathways of the central nervous system. Romantic name is associated with the mythological character - virgin Undine, who was deceived lover and cursed his breath. Alveolar hypoventilation - a phenomenon that may be caused by factors different levels of the respiratory chain, the damage of which are central to the first two:
- Central and peripheral chemoreceptors that are insensitive to carbon dioxide, causing breathing normal pulse.
- Respiratory neurons in brain stem structures that are damaged as a result of injury or illness.
- The spinal cord and pathways.
- The muscles responsible for breathing.
- lung tissue.
Unlike obstructive sleep apnea symptomsCentral sleep apnea worse treatment. The causes of it, as a rule, are incurable chronic conditions, or due to severe injuries. It is known that pharmacological stimulation of the respiratory center does not bring the desired results, and not the method of choice. Auxiliary ventilation through a mask to control the volume and pressure - method is more promising, well-established in many patients. Another important factor is the need to sleep in a mask throughout the night, which is often a disaster for the young patients. Up to 90% of patients on prolonged assisted ventilation, can be translated into spontaneous breathing with the help of an implantable electrical stimulator of the diaphragm, which creates an additional or primary breathing pattern. Implantation respiratory stimulant distorts the voice of the patient, may indirectly affect the abdominal organs and the abdominal muscles, but also has significant advantages. In addition to a full or partial independence from a stationary ventilator, electrical stimulation allows patients to cough on their own, thereby reducing the risk of respiratory infections and the need for aids to cleanse the respiratory tract.