Dull pain, crunching in the lower jointjaw, limited opening of the mouth - these are typical symptoms of osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint. As osteoarthritis and other sites, temporomandibular joint arthrosis is characterized by a chronic course and the gradual development of degenerative distoficheskih processes in cartilage and bone. What causes it, and what signs indicate the troubles of the bone joints of the temporal bone and the mandible?
Osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint(TMJ) can be caused by various factors, general and local character. Common reasons include disease and metabolic disorders, nervous disorders of blood circulation in the area of the joint, hormonal changes affecting the metabolic processes, common infectious diseases, complicated by arthritis.
The impact of local factors is reflected in an increase in the load on the joints, which leads to a result microtraumas articular cartilage and their subsequent destruction.
- Bruxism is manifested teeth gnashing.
- Absence of the molars.
- Pathological dental abrasion.
- Deformed occlusal surface of the teeth.
- Poor quality dentures.
General and local factors are closely relatedother, and complement each other at a certain stage of osteoarthritis and dysfunction of the jaw joint. The impetus for development of the disease may be a metabolic disturbance of bone and cartilage leading to joint reduction adaptation possibilities and damage even under normal load. Bruxism is often associated with abnormal wear of tooth surfaces, reduced height and deformation of the dentition, which creates unfavorable conditions for the joint.
The development of osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint is on the sameprinciples as arthrosis of other sites. Dystrophic changes accompanied by a reduction of the articular cartilage's ability to withstand stress and this leads him microtraumas and destruction. articular disc perforation affects the underlying bone, causing it to rebuild and overgrowth with the formation of osteophytes. Mandibular condyle head is deformed, gets hooked or clavate, joint space narrowing, there is degeneration of ligament apparatus and masticatory muscles on the affected side. In the presence of local factors creating undue stress on the joints, arthritic joint temporal developing even faster, bypassing the stage 1.
Osteoarthritis in the temporomandibular jointmanifested primarily dull, dull pain, which occurs when the load is a bone joint. The pain is worse when chewing, talking, accompanied by the crunch of varying intensity, sometimes clicks. There morning stiffness of the lower jaw, mouth opening limitation. Patients often chew food on one side of the dentition, as chewing on the other side cause inconvenience and hurt.
When the external examination revealed facial asymmetrymandible, its retraction and offset to one side, the nasolabial folds become deeper, there are wrinkles in the corners of the mouth. When you open your mouth much like the lower jaw deviates to the affected side, or at the very beginning of the movement, or at the end. Further development of TMJ osteoarthritis leads to a drastic limitation of mouth opening and a normal diet violation.
Diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the temporomandibularjoint is based on the complaints of the patient, the external examination data to detect defects of the dentition and occlusion, deformation of facial and joint dysfunction. Discover crunch at lower jaw movement possible by probing and listening joint. When radiography and computed tomography revealed joint joint space narrowing, degeneration and deformation of the lower jaw of the head, the presence of osteophytes. For the diagnosis of joint dysfunction is used in registration of the mandible movements, electromyography.