The concept of traumatic brain injury
Traumatic brain injury - mechanical traumaskull makes a muffled brain tissue tension and offset its layers, a transient sharp rise in intracranial pressure. Offset medulla may be accompanied by rupture of brain tissue and blood vessels, brain contusion. Typically these complex mechanical circulatory disorders complemented and biochemical changes in the brain.
Depending on whether there was any trauma integrity of skin and skull covers tightness or they are violated, head injuries are divided into indoor and outdoor.
The main manifestations of open craniocerebral injury
Open head injury includessoft tissue injuries of the skull with damage to connective fascia (muscle fiber membrane) without penetrating and penetrating trauma. With this type of injury often observed fractures of the skull, which creates the risk of brain infection. Symptoms of open lesions depends on the nature of the brain damage and stem structures.
Together with the destruction of the skin, bones and shellsmatters concussion and compression of the brain. Acute period lasts up to 3 days and shows the development of sopor or coma, as well as disorders of the heart and lungs. Period early reactions characterized by swelling of the brain, mainly around the wound. Gradually recovering consciousness, but the growing paralysis of the arms and legs, disturbed speech and hearing. During this period, most often it occurs meningitis or encephalitis development. After 4 weeks, the period of liquidation begins early complications. For 4 months the wound heals and a scar is formed, which does not cause consequences.
Long-term effects of trauma - the development of epileptic seizures and hydrocephalus (hydrocephalus brain).
The symptoms of brain compression
Compression of the brain characterized byincrease of life-threatening through a different period of time after the injury or immediately after her brain symptoms. Compression of the brain characterized by the accumulation of bulk liquid or clotted blood, cerebrospinal fluid or air under the shells. This causes local and general compression of substances with an offset of median brain structures, deformation and compression of its individual elements.
Compression of the head - a special kind of injury resulting from exposure to a consistent dynamic (transient) or static (long) mechanical load.
Compression of the brain characterized bydamage to soft tissues of the head, the skull and the brain. A more precise term is "long impaction head" (minutes, hours, days) in contrast to the less significant short compression head (second).
Prolonged compression of the head occurs inaffected by the earthquakes, explosions and collapses in mines. For an adequate and unambiguous assessment forms of traumatic brain injury must be properly qualified human consciousness.
There are 4 gradation states of consciousness:
- clear consciousness with preservation of all mental functions, complete orientation in place and time, and an adequate response
- stunning - depression of consciousness during the preservation of limited verbal contact on the background of increasing the threshold of perception of external stimuli and reduce their own mental and motor activity
- stupor - a deep depression of consciousness thatmanifested by drowsiness while maintaining co-ordinated defensive reactions to pain, eye opening at a sharp sound or pain, preservation of vital functions, or moderate them change one of the parameters
- coma is characterized by loss of consciousness with complete loss of perception of the world and himself