Increased pressure: causes and symptoms


This scourge of modernity is called high pressure. Often it is not just an unpleasant symptom, but an independent disease called «quiet killer».

What is the pressure elevated

What is the pressure elevatedWith apparent simplicity, this question is quite complex. In medicine there is no consensus on this. After all, the normal value of pressure depends on the individual characteristics of the person. It is believed that in elevated pressure can be said when the values ​​are exceeded 160/95. Blood pressure in the range of 140-160 / 90—95, too, is not normal, but intermediate. Increased pressure above the norm call arterial hypertension, or hypertension.

Causes of arterial hypertension

Vessel's ability to persuade, causing pressure increase, — It is not only normal, but also necessary. When we worry, we are experiencing stress, we obtain physical activity, the body develops temporary hypertension in the body. It helps to adapt to our body to unusual conditions. Pathological state becomes a state from the moment when the body loses the ability to normalize pressure when disappearing non-standard factors.

About 10-20% of cases chronic pressure increase — it's only a symptom of some disease. This condition is called symptomatic hypertension. Most often, this form is registered with people with various chronic renal problems. A little less often symptomatic hypertension is explained by the defeat of the vessels, first of all caused by atherosclerosis. Thyroid diseases (hypo- and hyperthyroidism), parachitoid (hyperparathyroidism) glands, pituitary glands and adrenal glands also proceed with pressure increase. Brain lesion is caused by violation of the functioning of various organ systems, including the pressure regulation mechanism. Some medicinal substances, poisons and even products may also cause the development of hypertension.

Primary, or essential, hypertension occurs much more. This condition is also called hypertensive disease. There are many factors predisposing to the development of such a form of hypertension, but the reason in each particular case is difficult to establish. Contribute to the beginning of the disease can:

  • genetic predisposition;
  • regular stress;
  • excess weight;
  • Alcohol and tobacco abuse;
  • Excess table salt in the diet.

Arterial hypertension. Symptoms

If we talk about symptomatic hypertension, then specify certain symptoms is very difficult. After all, as mentioned above, the improved pressure — This is just a sign of a certain disease. So, the clinical picture will fully depend on the root causes.

Signs of hypertension

Signs of hypertensionWith a long-term increase in blood pressure, the work of a number of organs, which are called target authorities. Basically, the heart, brain, kidneys and vessels suffer from this process. Symptoms will depend on what organ changes are.

The first heart usually suffers, because he has to overcome the growing resistance of the vessels. The wall of its left ventricle is thickened and requires enhanced nutrition, which is not always possible. Patients complain of heart pain, reinforced heartbeat, shortness of breath. Due to the insufficient blood supply to the body increases the risk of infarction.

The brain also lands blood portion. Initially, this is manifested by headaches, dizziness, the memory is further worse, reduced performance.

The adverse effect of hypertension on the kidney is manifested by frequent urination and is ultimately fraught with the development of renal failure.

Patients often complain about cooling limbs, pain in the calf muscles while walking. The vessels of the retina of the eye suffer, which leads to impairment of vision.

In the development of the disease, the following stages of hypertensive disease are distinguished:

  • Hypertension 1 degree — The pressure periodically rises to 140-159 / 90-99 and independently normalizes. The disease is not accompanied by changes in target organs, therefore the symptoms are poorly expressed, manifest only with excitement, stress, after physical exertion.
  • 4 degree hypertensive disease — Pressure is regularly in the range of 160-170 / 100-109. One or more target organs is affected. Symptoms are more pronounced and manifest regularly.
  • Hypertension 3 degree — Pressure value above 180/110. In addition to target organs, the disease affects the vessels themselves. Symptoms are pronounced.

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