Lepra: manifestation, examination and treatment


  • Leprosy
  • As leprosy manifests
  • How to examine on leprosy
  • How treatment lepros

  • Leprosy

    Lrapra - Chronic infection with predominant leather lesions, peripheral
    nervous system, eye and some internal organs.

    Currently, there are about 2 million patients with leprosy in the world, mainly
    in developing countries. Leper is more often registered in men (2: 1). Cases of the disease Leproi in children up to 1 year old are extremely rare. The pathogen - acid resistant bacterium mycobacterium lepros (Hansen - Nisser).

    Lepreing a littleness, which makes it impossible to reveal in each specific
    Case of infection and source of infection. Single reservoir - patient
    Human. Lrapraya infection occurs when direct contacts, as well as air-drip
    way. Proved the possibility of intrauterine infection, but children, isolated
    from sick parents after birth, do not get sick.

    As leprosy manifests

    Untifferentiated lepreras can be transformed into lepromatous or tuberculoid
    a type. Charming rashes and damage to peripheral nerve trunks.
    Rashes have a kind of clearly limited stains of different color and sizes; after
    a short period of increased sensitivity becomes insensitive.
    Skin lesions often spontaneously heal. However, progression is possible
    in more severe forms.

    Lepra: manifestation, examination and treatment Tuberculoid lepr. Begins with the appearance of weak granted spots
    With china edges and reduced sensitivity. Characteristic granulation growth
    fabrics in leather and mucous meal often observe one hearth, which is sometimes the only one
    manifestation of disease. Mature tuberculoid lepromes asymmetrical, sensitivity
    missing completely, edges are raised above the skin. Around around
    Plots reduced the number of sweat glands and hair follicles. Atrophy musculature
    Begins with small muscles of the brush; Later, contractures of the upper and lower
    Limbs. Cases of spontaneous cure.

    Lepromatous leprena. Disease affecting the skin, nasal mucous membranes
    and rotogling, front chamber eye, skin and other peripheral nerves, adrenal glands
    and testicles. Lesions are localized on the back and limbs in the form of symmetrical solid
    Seals having a reddish-brown color. Patients often observe loss
    eyebrows and eyelashes, knots and seals often give the face a kind of expression,
    famous «lion's face». Nasting nasal strokes, nasal bleeding,
    The nose acquires a saddot shape, laryngitis and hoarseness. Characteristic
    Eye lesions leading to weakening view and blindness. The lymph nodes,
    especially the femoral, inguinal and elbow, are often increased and contain significant
    The number of pathogen. Often observe the increase in liver and spleen. With absence
    Treatment The disease quickly progresses.

    Border (dimorphic) lepra. Skin lesions are even more diverse, bumps
    and plaques can be combined with stains. Reduced sensitivity less pronounced,
    than with tuberculoid lepreing. Celebrate the thinning of the ugra, an increase in the nose
    and abrasion arcs. Lesions of the skin are more numerous, but not symmetrical as
    with lepromatous lepreing.

    How to examine on leprosy

    Mikobacteria detection Lepra in the nasal septum mucosa scrap,
    Affected skin sites and materials of increased lymph nodes

    With dubious results - biocrobes on guinea pigs (sensitive to
    Tuberculosis mycobaccutters and arrangements for Mikobcteria Lrapra)

    Serodiagnostics: Detection of antibodies to cell wall glycolympide extracted
    phenol; The sensitivity of the method is more than 90% in lepromatous form and about
    30% with tuberculoid form.

    How treatment lepros

    • Regular counseling orthopedic, surgeon, ophthalmologist and therapist.
    • Wearing properly selected shoes and the use of patching dressings
      prevent the appearance of ulcers on the soles.
    • Formation of contractures of the upper limbs can be prevented by
      exercise and imposition of dressings.
    • When defeating the eyes, it urgently conducts the appropriate correction.
    • Surgical treatment of leprees. Reconstructive interventions are shown - transplantation
      nerves and tendons, elimination of contractures and other operations that improve functional
      Opportunities and social adaptation.
    • Preparations of choice. Dapson 100 mg / day and rifampicin 600 mg / day. When border,
      Border-lepromatous and lepromatose leprosy additionally - ethionamide 250-500
      mg / day.
    • Duration of medicinal therapy: undifferentiated and tuberculoid
      Lepra - Dapson 3 years, rifampicin - 6 months. Border Tuberculoid Lepr - Dapson
      5 years, rifampicin 6 months. Border Lepron - Dapson 10 years, Rifampicin 2 years,
      Ethionamide 10 years. Border-lepromatous leprosh and lepromatose lepr -
      dipson all life, rifampicin 2 years, ethionamide all life.
    • The incubation period of the disease lasts extraordinarily for a long time - on average 4-6
      years, often tightened to 10-15 years and more.

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