The direct effect of radiation on the body begins with the interaction of radiation with tissues, cells and intracellular medium. Scientists have proven a greater sensitivity of hematopoietic organs, spermatogenic epithelium, leather and intestinal mucosa to the action of ionizing radiation. The development of acute radiation disease, radiation damage is manifested at the molecular level, contribute to intensive chemical transformations in the cells of the body, leading to a violation of the processes of natural regeneration of a number of tissues, the formation of clinical beam syndromes. The course of the disease implies the initial period, the phase of imaginary well-being, the height of the disease and restoration — These are periods of radiation disease, when clinical syndromes are formed:
- Late hepatitis;
- infectious complications;
Radiation defeat depends on the level and distribution of the dose of radiation over time and happens:
- Single massive;
- re-in small doses;
- Local or total irradiation.
At the same time, the radiation disease is distinguished by 4 degrees and chronic form of various stages with a predominance of general or local changes. It should be noted that the formation of the disease occurs during the period of contact with the radiation source or in the coming time after its termination. The recovery period lasts from 2 to 5 years, directly depends on the dose, stage, severity and form, which is actual confirmation in the scientific presentation on the topic: «Radiation sickness».
With one-time irradiation of a high dose of ionizing radiation, a radiation disease is developed, characterized by 4 degrees of gravity, we are talking about the last of them, an extremely heavy, increasing dose of irradiation over 10 grams, whose manifestations are obvious after 20-30 minutes. The main symptoms of the initial period are:
- Vomiting: notes indomitable, every 0.5 hours.
- Headache: Strong, Permanent, Consciousness.
- Weakness: Significant, moving only on stretcher.
- Temperature: Above 38°WITH.
- Skin hyperemia: very intense.
With an increase in the dose of ionizing radiation, the manifestations of radiation disease, disease syndromes are of paramount importance, there is a deep damage to blood formation, characterized by severe lymphopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and anemia, fatal outcome is inevitable.
Development of radiation disease, as the final stage in a chain of processes beginning with the contact of ionizing radiation with tissues, cells and liquid media, does not cease to worry humanity after September 1945, when the US Navy first dropped the atomic bomb to the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which led to irreversible consequences.
Time passed, and 1986 was marked by the next terrible nuclear disaster: an explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and an emission of a significant amount of radioactive substances into the environment. It was the largest accident in the entire history of nuclear energy in the number of victims of chronic and acute radiation disease. From the penetrating radiation lesion during the first three months, 31 people were killed, the long-term consequences of irradiation 10-15 years after the accident claimed more than a thousand people. Only 30 kilometer zone in the first days after the explosion were evacuated 115 thousand people.
But this is not the final, the development of scientific and technological progress and high technologies requires grand energy costs, which means that the construction of new NPPs and the case at Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant in long-suffering Japan is inevitably — Bright illustration of a presentation on the topic: «Fukushima 2011, radiation disease». The Japanese authorities notified the IAEA, and as a precautionary measure was recommended to leave 20–30 kilometer zone. As a result of the second explosion, 11 station employees were injured, the population was evacuated, the exclusion zone in some places amounted to from 30 to 80 km.