Prostate cancer in men: symptoms, treatment, forecast


  • Reasons for the development of prostate cancer
  • Prostate cancer clinic
  • Prostate cancer diagnosis
  • Treatment of prostate cancer

  • So, among men up to 45 years old mortality from prostate cancer is insignificant
    (3 cases on 1 million. person.), However, after 75 years, this value increases
    more than 400 times, reaching 130 cases per 100,000 people. Within the territory of
    Russia prostate cancer is almost 2 times less often than the world as a whole.
    However, the growth rate of the disease over the past 10 years has become so great,
    that over the next decade the incidence can catch up with global

    Reasons for the development of prostate cancer

    • Prostate cancerage hormonal changes in the body of men associated with
      Changes in the hypothalamus system – pituitary – Adrenal - Eggs. W
      Persons with a high androgenic background (for example, in people with high sexual
      activity) prostate cancer occurs more often
    • Genetic predisposition
    • place of residence and racial affiliation (prostate cancer less
      meets in Eastern Europe and Asia, more often in America and Scandinavia)
    • Cadmium toxicosis (chronic intoxication by cadmium)
    • Imbalance of nutrients (decrease in food vegetable products and vitamin
      E Against the background of increasing the consumption of animal fats and proteins)

    Prostate cancer
    Quite often passes the stage of the prejudice, timely detection
    which is extremely important in terms of forecast and treatment

    TO Preiodant prostate gland relate:

    • Atypical hyperplasia. This is a facultatic preference, which is able to move into cancer under certain conditions.
    • Intraepithelial neopropasia. This is a bond predecessor of prostate adenocarcy.

    Prostate cancer classification Founded
    on the histological picture and the peculiarities of growth. Unlike adenoma
    prostate, cancer most often develops in the peripheral zone and only in
    10% of cases in the transient zone most characteristic of adenoma.

    adenocarcine (iron cancer) and flat-cell cancer of varying degrees
    Differentiation, as well as a squirrel and solid cancer. Prostate cancer,
    As a rule, it is characterized by a multi-grade growth and different levels
    Differentiation of tumor tissue cells. Differentiation degree of cancer
    It is customary to divide on 5 levels that determine its further classification
    on Glisona. Depending on the resulting gleason number is determined
    Forecast of the disease and tactics of further treatment. More
    common in practice is TNM classification, giving
    Clinical and histological characteristics of the tumor itself (t),
    the presence and severity of the lesion of lymph nodes (N), the presence and
    Characteristics of remote metastases (M).

    Prostate cancer clinic

    characteristic only for prostate cancer, unfortunately does not exist. More
    that, many symptoms are similar to those with the prostate adenoma
    glands, which requires increased attention in their identification. Complaints
    Patients are usually associated either with symptoms of tumor growth,
    either with the advent of metastases. Due to a long asymptomatic
    currents and late detection, more than half of the cases
    Primary detection of prostate cancer already available metastases.

    Usually, the tumor is found randomly with preventive or diagnostic examinations. Prostate cancer
    Differs relatively slow growth. When metastasis
    The spread of the tumor occurs both in circulatory and
    lymphatic paths. With the growth of the tumor to the urethra
    There are rapid urination, blood traces in the urine, violation
    urination up to the acute delay. When germinating a tumor in
    Neighboring organs (seed bubbles, bladder, rectum)
    There are symptoms of lesion of these organs. So, from
    urinary system may appear cystitis, pyelonephritis and even chronic renal failure.
    Metastases are possible in bone tissue as a pelvic region and other
    Skeleton departments. Nearest metastases are often accompanied by edema legs and
    Midges. Remote metastases are most characteristic of the lungs, liver and
    adrenal glands.

    Prostate cancer diagnosis

    The most effective methods of early diagnosis Prostaty cancer is an:

    • Prostate cancerRectal finger prostate survey
    • Rectal Ultrasonic Study Prostate (Transrectal Echography)
    • Determination of the level of prostatic specific antigen (PSA).

    All listed methods mutually complement each other and allow you to suspect or identify prostate cancer
    In the early, preclinical stages of its development. So, determining the level
    PSA gives from 15 to 40% of false positive and false-negative
    Results, T.To. depends on factors as preceding massage
    Prostates, instrumental surveys, inflammatory processes and even
    ejaculation shortly before the study.

    Other, more accurate
    The method is determined by the prostatic density index
    Specific antigen received by the ratio of the PSA level to the volume
    Prostati. An even more valuable rate is the rate of increment
    PSA level. With an increase in the level of antigen by 20% or more per year
    need more careful study. Recently use
    Also measurement of the ratio of the free and total PSA fraction, reduction
    which speaks of a possible tumor process.

    In general, diagnosis
    The level of prostatic specific antigen – Extremely necessary
    Examination for men older than 40 years. And if during the examination level
    PSA above 2 ng / ml, this risk of prostate cancer is considered high, which means it is necessary an annual prophylactic examination.

    Other methods of surveys include:

    • Warofloometry
    • Prostaty biopsy
    • Ultrasonic examination of the abdominal cavity
    • Radiological examinations, including computed tomography
    • Radioisotope studies
    • Magnetic resonance tomography and others.

    Treatment of prostate cancer

    and in many other fields of oncology the treatment method depends on
    set factors. First of all pay attention to the stage
    Diseases and degree of tumor differentiation.

    With local forms
    Cancer (without metastases) apply the following treatment methods:

    • Removal of the prostate gland (radical prostatectomy). Remove
      Prostate together with seed bubbles regional lymph nodes.
      The most popular today laparoscopic technique operations as
      The least traumatic.
    • Remote radiation therapy. Irradiated
      Prostate and regional lymph nodes at a dose of about 40 Gray
      additional subsequent irradiation of the primary tumor to the total
      Doses of 70 Gray.
    • Brachytherapy or interstitial radial
      therapy. The essence of treatment is the local irradiation of the gland
      Microcapsules with radioactive preparations. «Grains» with drug
      introduced under anesthesia with a special needle directly into the tumor
      fabric, which makes it possible to significantly increase the dose of irradiation on the tumor and
      reduce irradiation of healthy tissues. The results of treatment are better and
      Complications less than when remotely irradiation.
    • Monotherapy
      Antanderrogen. This treatment is rarely used and carried out
      patients who are not shown other types of treatment.

    Treatment of prostate cancer
    with nearest metastases usually comes down to maximum androgenic
    blockade, including antandrogenic therapy with medication
    or operational castration. Sometimes radiation therapy and
    chemotherapy. Common (disseminated) prostate cancer
    glands are usually as a rule, only symptomatic or palliative
    Therapia. However, the use of antangrogenous and radiation therapy
    able to significantly improve the quality and duration of the life of patients.

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