Ability to binocular vision, i.e. to vigio in two eyes,
It is formed from him gradually and continues until four to six years. So
as it happens gradually, it can be easily broken. Everything
Newborn have a farewell of about three diopters. At the same time focus
does not fall on the retina, but is behind it. As the child grows
Increases in size and eyeball, and optical focus
moves to the retina. Some children, due to various reasons,
have limitedness above three diopters. To clearly see objects,
they have to strain their eyes. This is a voltage and is often
The main prerequisite to the occurrence of pathologies.
Most often parents turn to the children's ophthalmologist, noting that
The eyes of the crumbs are watching «not properly», What is associated with pathologies
Overall apparatus. Indeed, squint and nistagm
associated with eye violations, although the problem itself is much deeper
and affects many of the functions of the body, including the work of the departments
brain responsible for vision.
What is a squint
Squint is not only the problem of appearance, when
This is violated by work in almost all sections of the visual system.
Most often it develops in children with farewell and
astigmatism, less often - with congenital and early acquired myopia.
Most often, squint arises between one to three years.
Diverging squint meets less frequently than coming. At
Space in a constantly oblique eye gradually reduced
Acute view, that is, amblyopia develops. This complication is associated with
by the fact that the visual system, in order to avoid chaos, is blocked
in the brain image of an object that is perceived by a kosy eye.
Such a state leads to even greater deviation of this eye, and
The vicious circle is launched.
Any suspicion of deviation from the norm should alert parents and
Move to the speedy visit to the children's ophthalmologist. The process of loss
vision depends on the age of pathology. If this
happened in early childhood, in the first year of life, then decrease in acute
vision is very and very fast.
Competent specialist will reveal the presence or absence of a child
hyperopia (myopia), sharpness and nature of view, angle
Spacese. If necessary, will send for advice to other doctors,
For example, to a neurologist.
Only after a thorough examination may be a comprehensive
Cultural treatment. In the presence of hyperopia or myopia,
Indications, child prescribed glasses. Sometimes they completely fix
strabismus. However, even with this position of things of one wearing glasses
Not enough. Since the disease is systemic, then the approach to treatment
should be the same. The conservative part of treatment includes methods,
aimed at raising visual acuity. It is very important to restore
«Bridges» between eyes to teach a child to combine images with
right and left eye in one image.
In the course of treatment at a certain stage, if there is indications, it is carried out
Surgical intervention on the muscles of the eye. Operation directed by
Restore the correct balance between the muscles leading to
There are methods of surgical treatment of strabismus that allow
fix not only its constant big, but also successfully treated
non-permanent deviations, as well as squint with small angles
Deviations of the eye. Essence of such specific operations on
Ocean Muscle, which are held on the micron level,
lies in changing the point of the application of force - the lever rule,
familiar to all of the school program.
After the operation requires further
Rehabilitation measures to help bring
Stereoscopic vision and localization (accurate definition) of objects in
space - all step by step. Unfortunately, in some cases
The treated methods used are fragmented.
More often from the whole complex that requires a systematic approach, choose and
treat something one, for example amblyopia. Sometimes rushing with operational
intervention. Never treatment «Slices» will not be successful!
The cause of seproinability at an early age may be:
- Hereditary predisposition when the disease is near the nearest relatives (parents, uncle, aunt);
- The presence of a particular optical defect (defocus),
most often it happens with farnabream in children. You also need to consider,
What, as a rule, hyperopia is combined with converging squint,
and myopia - with diverging;
- various intoxication (poisoning) of the fetus during pregnancy;
- severe infectious diseases;
- neurological diseases (hydrocephalus, an increase in intracranial pressure);
- The impetus to the emergence of the squint on the background of the prerequisites can serve as a high temperature, physical or mental injury.
I want to emphasize
Initiality of both early surgery of the squint and unreasonably
Long conservative treatment. Reference place in treatment
The squint should be predetermined not so much by the patient's age,
How much view of the squint and the nature of functional disorders
Spectator system. It is important to understand that the operation does not replace
Therapeutic techniques, and solves a specific task that
It is impossible to solve conservative.
Squint occurs in 3% of children, including all types of disease. If
deal seriously, the cure takes place in 97% of cases.
Rehabilitation in space involves the achievement of three main
Functional results: high visual acuity, symmetrical
positions of the eyes and stereoscopic visual perception.
There is another extreme - many doctors still stubbornly
They say that up to 6 years nothing needs to do and everything will pass. This is
the greatest misconception - if you do not take any measures for so long,
then you can get complications, and then the treatment will require much more
forces and time, and sometimes happened for the period «Expectations» Changes already
irreversible. Treatment need to start as early as possible.
Sometimes the squint is impaired: due to broad bridges
Newborn Parents under-
rose the presence of this defect view, and it really is not - this
Just illusion. That's exactly, in this case, everything is really with
age passes and nothing needs to be corrected, but to determine, imaginary
This is a squint or real, only a doctor can.
What is Nistagm
Another pathology of the oculomotory apparatus in children is
Nistagm. At the same time, the diagnosis is not installed in general and eyes
constantly perform spontaneous chaotic movements of different
amplitude, because of what the image on the retina is always defocused.
Nistagm is the hardest pathology of the visual system associated with
disorders of the central nervous system, with the pathology of the eye dna and
Spectator nerve. Congenital nystagm in children is found enough
Among the causes of its occurrence can be called birth injuries, and
Disorders of intrauterine development. Also nystagm can provoke
Albinism is a hereditary disease manifested by a decrease or
Full absence of skin pigmentation, hair, eyes (eye-skin
Albinism) or only eye (eye albinism). Children with albinism
have very white skin; eyebrows, eyelashes and hair are completely deprived
Pigment. Due to the lack of pigment in the retina, functions are broken
Nervous cells of the retina, in addition, in children with this disease
Initially, there are violations both in the central field of retina and
in a visual nerve. As a result, Nistagm arises.
Nistagm in almost all cases is combined as with organic
(irreversible) changes in the visual system (partial atrophy
optic nerve, dystrophic changes in the eye day) and with
functional (reversible) violations. Latest in Nistagma
develop against the background of concomitant pathology, first of all
Farcastic, astigmatism, myopia or squint. Wherein
The disease on the eye day is formed a blurred fuzzy image. TO
This adds constant movement of eyeballs and offset
Images. As a result, the highest departments of the central nervous system
The fuzzy picture is passed, so the auditorium cortex of the head
the brain is not evolving and visual acuity decreases.
In suspected a child of this pathology, he should immediately show
ophthalmologist and neuropathologist. It is necessary to conduct a survey
brain on magnetorezonance tomograph. This will allow you to reveal
Possible organic disorders. Many clinics are not taken for treatment,
considering this pathology hopeless, but it is necessary to compete for vision in any
case. With a comprehensive approach, very good results are possible,
When both therapeutic and surgical methods are used.
Conservative hardware treatment of children with nastagm is directed to
Increase of visual acuity, reduction of blood circulation inside the eye,
Improving the activity of the metabolic process in visual cells.
Treatment must be carried out in conjunction with the neuropathologist, courses for
two or three weeks several times a year. Under nystagme applied
Special operations on the muscles of the eye aimed at reducing
amplitudes and frequency of oscillatory movements. Treatment is enough
Long, little patient must be under constant
Dispensary observation. The goal is to improve sight to
The child could study in an ordinary school, adapt among the peers.
The pathologies of the ocudual apparatus have a serious impact on
Formation of the entire visual system of the child. Therefore, treatment must
to be started as early as possible to prevent the development of complications
and accelerating the functional rehabilitation of a child. As visual
The kid system is in constant development, in children of the younger
Age All used methods are more effective. To school child
must be maximally rehabilitated. In older children
It takes a much larger time to improve visual functions and
In some cases, it is not always possible to achieve complete recovery.
And, of course, very good when the child is engaged in experienced
Specialists, but in no case cannot be lazy. Necessary
do problem constantly until full cure, and not throw
Everyone as soon as good cosmetic results appeared. In such
The case of interrupted treatment will not bring benefits, it will not be fully solved
The problem with vision and everything will return «Over the circles».
It should be remembered that the correct diagnosis and adequate
Timely treatment is the key to full rehabilitation of small
Patient, healthy shine and joy in his eyes.