Chronic nutrition disorders (dystrophy) occur not necessarily only when the child is starving, or, on the contrary, overeating. Often the reason is in violation of the absorption of nutrients by the body. Externally, this is expressed in the deviation of the physical parameters of the child from average values, reducing the elasticity and elasticity of the skin, in the lag of neuropsychic development, in constant diseases due to violations in the immune system.
Power disorders are two species. The first, hypotrophy is a body weight deficit. Pararoid is its 10 percent excess (if the excess weight is even more, they talk about hypertrophy - obesity). In addition, among chronic disorders, hypostatics are highlighted in which a uniform lag is observed in the growth and mass of the body in satisfactory condition of the definition. Hypaintles are characteristic of children with various chronic diseases. When correction and compensation of the underlying disease, the physical development of the child is normalized.
Causes of hypotrophy
Many children are born with a small body weight. This is not always a pathology: the reason may be in heredity, and not in the health of the kid. Another thing, if the cause of the low weight at birth is becoming disorders of the fetus in the intrauterine period of development, when the placenta for some reason did not fully fulfill its nutritional, respiratory and metabolic functions. Maybe mom had guest bees or an increased uterus tone, the pathology of the placenta or umbilical cord. The reason may also be in infection or rhesv conflict. The most accurate method of diagnosis Congenital hypotrophy of the fetus is an ultrasound with an assessment of blood flow in placenta vessels. For the treatment and prevention of the birth of a small child, a future mother prescribe the day of the day with a full-fledged sleep, a diet, which includes the required amount of all nutrients, vitamins and minerals. If it is necessary to restore placental blood flow - the doctor discharges the necessary drugs. But you should not overeat a woman: with normal blood circulation in the placenta, the baby and so get all the necessary meals and oxygen.
Acquired hypotrophy manifested after the child's birth. She can occur due to «Nedokorma»: Mom has little milk, the child has a runny nose and it is difficult for him to suck, registered inappropriate the age of diet, too late adopted. Less rare the cause of hypotrophy after birth diseases and congenital malformations in the child are becoming.
When suspected of hypotrophy with a child, doctors evaluate the degree of its severity.
For such an assessment there are several indicators:
- body mass deficiency (in% of due value);
- The index of fatness by Chulitskaya (Iuches = 3 of the shoulder circumference + hip circle + goal circle - body length). Normally, it is equal to 20–25;
- The presence and severity of violations of the functions of the internal organs.
Hypotrophy is three degrees of gravity. With the easiest form there is no lag in growth, there is only a body weight deficit (11–twenty%). The heavier the disease, the smaller the index by Chulitsky (with particularly complex forms, it can be negative), and the body weight deficit is increasing. Fat fiber disappears first throughout the body, and last time - with a child's cheeks. The fact is that chubby cheeks are not only very miles, but also needed in infants: they create a discharge in the oral cavity at sucking. Therefore, nature takes care so that here the so-called fat lumps are preserved as long as possible. The child changes the color of the skin and mucous membranes, the chair is frustrated, anemia or rickets appears, due to the reduction of the immune protection and reactivity of the body, various infectious processes are frequent. In the most difficult cases, growth is suspended, the mass of the body is declining, all types of metabolism are disturbed. With this condition, the child needs immediate medical care.
Treatment of hypotrophy
Treatment of a child with a weight deficit should be complex. Babies with hypotrophy are very vulnerable. They have imperfect thermoregulation processes, so they are easily reduced and overheat. Adults must maintain a temperature in children within 24-27°WITH. You can walk with the baby only at a temperature on the street not lower than -5s, and while the child's walk is better to hold on hand. Cold pens and child legs should be warming up. Due to the fact that under hypotrophy, there is a sharp decrease in immunity, it is necessary to carefully comply with hygiene. The kid is seamless after each intestinal emptying and bladder. After washing, the skin is lubricated with children's cream or sterile oil, and clothes are chosen without coarse seams and only from natural fabrics - after all, the skin of such a child is very prone to irritation. The child needs to take more often on his hands, talking to him, smile, play, creating a positive emotional attitude, which is extremely necessary in complex treatment.
By organizing dietary nutrition of kids with hypotrophy, pay attention to the two main principles:
- «rejuvenation» Food, T.E. the use of breast milk and adapted milk mixtures, which make up the basis of young children's nutrition;
- Two-phase food: First, they first carry out gradual adaptation to the growing amounts of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the diet and only then the child is transferred to optimal nutrition, ensuring the growth and normal development of the children's body.
From the first days of the healing diet, it is necessary to monitor its adequacy: whether the child has a laid food, there is no burden, vomiting. Be sure to monitor the chair and weight gain. With properly selected treatment, the restoration of the required weight in the child is usually beginning not earlier than in 3-4 weeks. After that, the child should have been observed in the doctors (pediatrician, gastroenterologist, nephrologist), which will control not only physical, but also motor, and mental development will be monitored.
Forecast in the treatment of primary postnatal hypotrophy in young children are usually favorable. But in any case, parents must understand that the nutrition of the kids is science and «Bicycle invention» This issue is associated with the risk to the health of the child. Extrapolate the habits of adults and lifestyle practiced in the family (refusal of meat and animal products, addiction to one or another products and dishes of national cuisine and T.D.), the child is unacceptable. We must try to provide a kid full for its age food and only after the end of the growth period, together with a grown man, discuss his food diet.