We begin our discussion of pericarditis words,belonging to Apollo Maikov: "Prior Knowledge greedy, stingy faith, you understand the endeavor being, anatomiruete corpses. - A heart l know her? ". Indeed, we know your heart?
Heart wall composed of three layers. Inner layer - endocardium, middle layer - outer layer of the myocardium and - epicardium.
Epicardium covers the outer surface of the heart andcoming to the heart of the segments of the aorta, pulmonary trunk and hollow veins. It is formed by a layer of epithelial cell types and the inner layer is a pericardial serous membrane. Pericardium - the pericardium - is also the outer layer.
Between the inner layer of the pericardium (epicardium) andits outer layer has a slit-like cavity containing serous fluid (from 2 to 50 milliliters). It helps to reduce friction between the sheets with the heart rate.
Thus, for maintaining the pericardiumtissue pressure, perform in a certain kind of sliding support for the role of the heart, preventing excessive stretching of the body, limiting his mobility.
Pericarditis - acute or chronic inflammation of the pericardium. There are dry (adhesive, including constrictive - compressing) and exudative (pleural) pericarditis.
pericarditis causes can be infection(Viruses, bacteria, tubercle bacilli, fungi, protozoa, rickettsiae), rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, myocardial infarction, uremia, trauma (including operational, radiation), tumors, beriberi and C B1.
The mechanism of development of pericarditis is often allergic or autoimmune.
Symptoms and course defined the underlying disease and fluid character in the pericardium, the quantity (dry or exudative) and the rate of accumulation of fluid.
Initially, patients complain of discomfort,fever, pain behind the breastbone or in the heart, is often associated with respiratory phases (worse on inspiration), sometimes reminiscent of angina pain, often auscultated pericardial friction (it is the result that fibrin is deposited on sheets of pericardium).
The appearance of fluid (effusion) in the pericardial cavityaccompanied by the disappearance of pain and pericardial friction noise, there is shortness of breath, cyanosis, swollen neck veins, there are a variety of rhythm disturbances (flickering, atrial flutter).
With the rapid build-up of fluid may developcardiac tamponade with marked cyanosis, rapid pulse, painful attacks of breathlessness, sometimes loss of consciousness. Gradually increases circulatory problems - appear edema, ascites, the liver increases. For large effusions atrial region protrudes, and intercostal spaces are smoothed.
When the adhesive pericarditis due to pericardial adhesions difficult to handle sheets of heart.
In the long pericarditis deposition of calcium salts can be observed (stone heart).
When these symptoms be sure to seek medical attention.