Disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIC, trombogemorragichesky syndrome, consumption coagulopathy) - a life-threatening bleeding disorder due to a massive release of substances tromboplasticheskih tissues.
Most often DIC occurs when:
- obstetric diseases;
- metastases of malignant tumors;
- severe trauma;
- bacterial sepsis.
When DIC coagulation dramatically accelerated and occur thrombosis and embolism of small vessels (ie, blockage of blood vessels plugs are listed in the bloodstream).
Following the initial phase of thrombotic DIC develops secondary fibrinolysis, ie dissolving the protein, forming the basis of a blood clot.
What are the symptoms of DIC
Manifestations of disseminated intravascular coagulation depend on the severity of the process and its phase.
The majority of patients seen:
- profuse hemorrhagic rash (ie, rash, is caused by the release of red blood cells outside the blood vessels in the skin);
- bleeding of mucous membranes, surgical wounds, catheters standing places.
Less DIC begins with a bluish colorextremities, thrombosis and necrosis in areas where blood flow in spasm and thrombosis of small vessels suffer the most (fingers, genitals, nose).
Chronic DIC (particularly those associated with malignant tumors) may be limited to changes in laboratory parameters.
The tendency to bleeding is most correlated with decreased levels of fibrinogen - a protein synthesized in the liver and is involved in the formation of a blood clot.
Excessive activation of the coagulation system is accompanied by deposition of insoluble protein, which forms the basis of a blood clot in small vessels, which may lead to the destruction of erythrocytes.
Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia(Insoluble protein deposits, forming the basis of a blood clot) in the walls of the arterioles occurs in about one in four patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation. However, the degree of destruction of red blood cells, accompanied by the release of these hemoglobin in these patients is not as high as, say, patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome.