Chickenpox - an acute infectious diseaseviral nature. Varicella refers anthroponoses group, ie she is ill and only man to catch chickenpox from animals and birds it is impossible by definition.
In most cases, sick children aged 5 to 9-10 years. Adults rarely get sick, but in the case of infection disease in these flows is especially difficult.
The causative agent of chickenpox (Varicella) isVirus Varicella-zoster virus, belonging to the family Herpetoviridae DNA-containing viruses. Perhaps such a detailed description of the virus family and will not be interesting to the general reader, but Herpetoviridae family concerns and Herpes zoster - the herpes virus that causes shingles also. Moreover - many experts believe that the varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus - it is the same virus that at first ingested causes chickenpox and long stays in the spinal marrow, and with a decrease in immunity is manifested in the form of herpes simplex or herpes zoster zoster. A man who does not have immunity to varicella-zoster virus, chickenpox can become ill when exposed to patients with herpes zoster.
How do you get chickenpox
You can get chickenpox fromperson to person by airborne droplets. Contagiousness (infectiousness) of this virus reaches 100%, i.e. almost everyone who comes into contact with the patient and does not have specific immunity, develop chickenpox. You can get infected not only by close contact with the patient, but also at a fairly considerable distance (our site emphasizes that in medical practice cases of infection from a patient located on another floor of the building are described). Immunity after chickenpox is lifelong, but in case of severe immunodeficiency, re-infection is also possible. Perhaps intrauterine infection with chickenpox virus in the last few days of pregnancy. With intrauterine infection in the early stages of pregnancy, the development of severe malformations is possible.
Symptoms and course of the disease
The incubation period, i.e. the period from the moment of infection with the virus until the onset of the first symptoms of the disease is 11 to 21 days, but on average it lasts 2 weeks. Many people are aware of the high risk of chickenpox and try not to contact the patient. However, our site draws your attention to the fact that the patient can become a source of infection two days before the appearance of obvious signs of the disease, it is during this period that most infections occur. Chickenpox remains contagious until the crusts dry.
At the very beginning of the disease is no particularsigns of the disease is chickenpox no. Within about two days in the child there is a weakness, lethargy, lack of appetite, if the temperature rises, it is insignificant. In some cases, there is no such symptoms and a rash appears sudden and unreasonable. The rash can appear on any part of the body, though it is on the head and the face appears a little later. The emergence of new elements of the rash is tolchkoobrazny character with an interval of two or three days. About a third of cases, the rash appears on the buccal mucosa, hard palate, gums and tongue, and the girls - on mucous genitals.
Character vysypnyh elements chickenpox signMost mothers and when they occur rarely in doubt in the nature of the disease, especially in the case of a similar disease in a kindergarten or school. In some cases, this rash can occur when insect bite, Contact dermatitis, allergydrugs, so consult a doctor will be necessary in any case. Initially, there are round spots of different size (macula), typically up to 10 mm in diameter, then they are raised above the skin in the form of nodules (papules), and later filled with a transparent liquid (vesicles), which later becomes cloudy and there pupkoobraznym retracted in the center of the bubble ( pustule). After a day or two vesicles dry up and covered with crusts that disappear without trace, but sometimes may be small scars that disappear in a few years. A distinctive feature of vysypnyh elements varicella is their false polymorphism (diversity), ie at the same time different sprinkler elements can be seen on the skin, in fact - it's the same elements of the rash, but in different periods of maturation.
Between the appearance of the first and last elementsrash usually takes 7-8 days, and the interval between the appearance of the first elements of a rash and scabs falling off of two to three weeks. In some cases, chickenpox can occur in the form of worn without appearing vysypnyh elements and an illness can be judged only on the basis of having acquired immunity and the absence of the disease, even in close contact with the patient.
Methods of diagnosis of chickenpox
Diagnosis varicella usually causesdifficulties pediatrician, especially if you have a history of contact with sick chicken pox. The nature and variety of rashes vysypnyh elements (false polymorphisms), as well as the time of their occurrence allows a diagnosis of chickenpox without any additional methods of examination.
However, in some cases with atypical withindisease there is a need in the differential diagnosis with herpes simplex and herpes angina, streptococcal, rickettsialpox, bites of fleas and other insects. The most significant is the isolation of the virus in tissue culture by electron microscopy. When using serological diagnostic methods - it is indicative of more than four-fold increase in antibody titer in the complement fixation. It may also be useful for diagnosing varicella virus infection typical for changes in the peripheral blood (taken from a vein, finger).
Treatment of varicella
In children, chickenpox is transferredIt is relatively easy and does not cause any trouble, but 5-7% of patients may experience suppuration vysypnyh elements on the skin (up to abscesses and gangrene), pneumonia, and septicemia. Varicella-zoster virus can sometimes damage the heart, kidneys, Liver.
Any specific treatment for chickenpoxsmallpox and there it is for home treatment with symptomatic therapy. Feeding during the illness should be frequent and a small amount of food with a reduced amount of "heavy" meat products, and high content of vitamins. When hyperthermia is used antipyretics (our site emphasizes that the use of aspirin during this period is possible in order to avoid the development of Reye's syndrome - a toxic liver and brain). Elements rash processed 1% brilliant green (it is an external view of the child, from head to toe in zelenke smeared, many associates and varicella) or 5-10% solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate). To prevent infection vysypnyh elements carefully follow the rules of personal hygiene. Nails desirable shaved very short, so that the child does not particularly active combed itchy blisters. With a very strong itching skin can be wiped with diluted in half with boiled water, vinegar and sprinkle talcum powder.
In case of complications of chickenpoxSmallpox used antiherpetic antiviral drugs (acyclovir), vidarbin, antiherpetic specific immunoglobulin, human leukocyte interferon, antibiotics when accession secondary infection, interferon drugs, but this treatment is carried out only in a hospital environment.
Prevention of varicella
Specific methods of prevention in Russia, andin Europe are not used, although in some countries is used varicella-zoster vaccine in the first three days after contact with the patient. For the active immunization of herpes and chickenpox abroad also use specific attenuated vaccine. The use of specific immunoglobulins for the prevention of chickenpox herpes advisable only in pregnant women and children with severe decompensated forms of disease and do not have natural immunity.
When can I go to kindergarten?
The child, a sick chickenpox, isolated fromof other children up to the disappearance of the crusts or before the fifth day since the appearance last vysypnyh elements. The rest were children under 7 years with no immunity to chickenpox and exposed to a sick child, sent to quarantine, ie imposed a ban on visits to kindergartens for three weeks, starting from the date of contact.