Hypertensive heart disease - it is permanent orperiodic increases in blood pressure (BP). The dangerous high blood pressure? The fact that the blood vessels that permeate all the organs and systems of our body have a certain amount of pressure - is the force with which blood pushes against the walls of the vessel.
Everyone knows that in the measurement of blood pressure are twoindicators, such as 120/80. The first number - the systolic pressure, ie, pressure on the vessel wall after a heart contraction. The second figure - the diastolic pressure, the rate of blood pressure on the vessel wall in between heartbeats. What are normal? If a person is calm, his blood pressure should not exceed 140/90 - is the upper limit of normal.
Causes of hypertension
Often the cause of the short-term pressure riseis stress, sudden fright (man went to buy bread, and his car almost knocked - weathered fright causes the adrenal glands to throw in the blood hefty dose of adrenaline, blood fills the vessels, a man quickened breathing and as a result the pressure increases). If a person has good health, the pressure quickly returned to normal.
However, constant stress provoke frequentpressure rises, and gradually increased pressure for the body becomes the "norm." For example, a person working in a managerial position, constantly goes on business trips and feels at the same time normal. However, if you regularly measure the pressure, it turns out that it is "normal" pressure is no longer a 120/80 and 140/90 ... His vessels already adapted to high blood pressure that is not normal - it is the initial stage of chronic idiopathic disease. At this stage, a person experiences recurrent headache, A feeling of heaviness in the head, short palpitations, occasional pain in the heart.
But the most important cause of hypertension isGenetic predisposition - if your parents suffered from hypertension, your chances of getting increased. Even if there is no family history, hypertension can be purchased on their own: the development of hypertension also contributes to smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, physical inactivity, and, as already mentioned, frequent stress.
In addition, our site would like to recall thatraising the pressure and contributes to the abuse of salt (and who among us does not like pickled tomatoes, pickles, salted fish - herring, dried fish, and others.). Salt causes an increase in blood volume and increases the sensitivity of vascular walls in vasoconstrictor factors.
Stages of the disease
In order to make a diagnosis, it is necessaryprovide medical information about your blood pressure for a while. If you think you have high blood pressure, our site encourages every morning measure their blood pressure and record the result. Measure the pressure must be at rest (for relaxing after exercise the minimum necessary - 5 minutes) before the measurement should not smoke or drink coffee. Take a comfortable position on the chair (back leans back in his chair, his feet do not cross), place your hand (better right, there is usually a higher pressure) on the table, and the clothes should not squeeze his hand in any place. Tonometer cuff attach to a height of 2 cm above the cubital fossa, but not too tight (one finger should fit freely between the cuff and the hand). If you do it this way, pressure measurements are the most accurate.
After two or three weeks you will have enoughdata that the doctor could make correct conclusion about the presence / absence of your hypertension. If the pressure rises and falls briefly own - it does not require treatment, as in the vessels are no changes. Man only occasionally suffer from headaches, nausea.
When the pressure after lifting (up to 140/90, 150/100) It returns to normal only at rest - it is a stable arterial hypertension (its first stage), which needs to be treated. Symptoms of this stage of hypertension are emotional instability, severe headaches, intense pulse, can be seen on ultrasound expansion of borders of the heart to the left. However, for many people the first stage of hypertensive disease goes unnoticed, and begin to treat it only when it becomes more severe phase.
At the second stage of the disease is already beginning to emergehypertensive crises, characterized by a sharp rise in pressure, headache, feeling of contraction in the heart. Blood pressure in hypertension of the second degree is very high (up to 180/115), which provokes changes in the fundus, changes in the kidneys. The heart begins to work in emergency mode, pumping an increased volume of blood, which is why developing hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart and weakens cerebral (brain) blood flow. Pererastyagivaetsya heart, the heart muscle weakens and there is shortness of breath, even with minimal exertion.
The heaviest - the third stage of hypertensiondiseases (blood pressure to 230/130) when one of the syndromes predominates: heart, brain or kidney. Cardiac syndrome is characterized by narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels, which is why the heart is suffering from lack of oxygen and developing coronary heart disease. If dominates nephritic syndrome, kidneys gradually shrink, losing their functions. Brain syndrome is expressed first in the brief loss of consciousness, then, over time, the patient begins to suffer from minor strokes and strokes.
Treatment of essential hypertension isconstant monitoring of blood pressure levels, and taking drugs, blood pressure support in a stable condition. There are several groups of drugs, whose action is based on different mechanisms of pressure reduction.
b-blockers. These drugs reduce heart rate, reduces peripheral vascular resistance. b-blockers (atenolol, metoprolol, Lokren, whiskey, etc.) is prescribed for bradycardia (a rare heart rate, less than 55 Urad per minute), bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis.
ACEI - angiotensin-convertingenzyme. These drugs block the production of renin (produced by the kidneys), which causes an increase in blood pressure. These drugs (hood, Metiopril, enalapril, Tritatse, Moeks, Prestarium, Cilazapril, Spirapril et al.) Contribute to the regression of hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart, coronary artery expansion, improve peripheral circulation.
Calcium antagonists. Their common principle of action - blocking calcium channels in vascular walls, increasing vascular lumen, and as a result, lowering blood pressure. Corinfar (Nifedipine), Amlodipine, Felodipine - affect the blood vessels, and drugs like verapamil act directly on the heart. A side effect of these drugs is a headache, dizziness, edema.
Diuretics - diuretics thatreduce the amount of fluid in the body, leading to a lowering of blood pressure. Hypertension used Hydrochlorothiazide, Indapamide, Klopamid, chlorothiazide - these means are not only lower blood pressure, but also save the potassium in the body, which is usually washed away when receiving other types of diuretics.
For the treatment of hypertension physician primarilyadvise the patient to change lifestyle, give up cigarettes and alcohol, to eat slightly salty foods, avoid stressful situations. If hypertension respond well to treatment, the doctor prescribes a drug (it is b-blockers, ACE inhibitors, or diuretics). If the pressure is not reduced by the action of one drug, the doctor prescribes a combination of two or more drugs. our website is strongly recommended: do not attempt to "at random", to choose for themselves a drug to lower blood pressure, so you will only do harm to their health. Only cardiologist will choose the right medicine for you.
Get rid of all hypertension - is impossible, because the vessel walls over the years have adapted to overpressureAnd drugs, we can not return to their previous state. But if you constantly monitor your blood pressure, it is possible to notice symptoms of hypertension and take action.