What mother would agree during their illnessbaby the fact that he pricked antimicrobials intramuscularly, and not simply be given the medicine or tablet? Not every ... Absolutely. And why? The prevailing with a landslide majority will say: "What I'm going to hurt him, injections do ... when there are so convenient - to give medicine spoon." And do not think my mother, how serious are the consequences of reckless behavior. Although, why just antibiotics? There are plenty of other diseases, conditions and medications that cause this problem. And not only in children ...
Dysbacteriosis. About him and talk is meant multiple epidemics of various diseases, as well as due to the huge growth of the pharmaceutical industry.
What is the "flora" and "dysbiosis"?
For none of readers our website is not a secret thatin our body "lives" a huge number of micro-organisms and their more than 490 species. But not all of them can and will cause various diseases. Therefore, there is pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora. In general, each person has his "people", its microorganisms that support in turn the body itself. That is a kind of symbiosis, "you - I, I - you."
In different parts of the digestive systemThey are different "settlers". For example, in the mouth (by the way, most "densely populated" place of the body) and in the large intestine is dominated by anaerobic bacteria (E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae, yeast-like fungi); and the stomach generally "poor" because in hydrochloric acid, many do not survive.
What are they needed for? The food we eat can be very useful, but in the form in which it enters the stomach, it is not our body learns. So, we need to somehow her "process" and "submit." To do this, and need all the composition of microflora. And here the main role played by obligate microorganisms.
Obligate microorganisms - is the main constant microflora. It begins to form the first in the life of a baby feeding and stabilized to two months.
Later in life for a gradualcolonization of the intestine pathogenic microflora. Its necessity has not been proved to the end. Some doctors believe that by having them in the intestine reduces the risk of the overall incidence of intestinal infections, increases immunity. Others believe the contrary, it causes great morbidity ... Anyway - conditionally pathogenic microorganisms is, is always there.
Pathogenic microflora - a minor "settlers", who may be in the body for a long time without causing any harm. But if intestines It gets a large number of the same bacteriakind or sharply reduced immunity, the disease manifests in severe form. In a healthy organism, the growth of the microflora inhibit obligate microorganisms.
And third, the most dangerous group of microorganisms - is pathogenic, ie pathogens.
Pathogens in the human body is notthere constantly. And in doing from the outside, causing the disease or by the destruction of the normal microflora, or very fast persistence (breeding and settling). Almost immediately, or on the background of reduced immunity and oppressed the body's defenses.
Thus, the first two groups exist inintestine may exist. The appearance of the representatives of the third group of microorganisms causes the imbalance, the imbalance of the entire flora. Obbligato die, which increases the growth of pathogenic strains of ... clinical signs of this imbalance. This is called dysbiosis.
Factors influencing the composition of intestinal microflora
Since it will be a violation of the microflora itself in a previously healthy child, consider the case of contact with pathogenic microorganisms from the outside we do not.
Thus, the reasons for such violations, microflora imbalance can be divided into external and internal.
- ecology, and with it related geographicand climatic conditions in which people live (here can be attributed to pollution from factories, radiation exposure, pollution by exhaust gases, etc.). List the hazards of today can be infinite. Unfortunately;
- further play an important role and professional harm, ranging from vibration and ending with various hazardous industries, because of their effect on the organism as a whole;
- hygienic - it's all of our conditions of life together. Starting from the same operating conditions and ending with entrances of our homes.
- to them in the first place to include variousinfectious diseases. Since we are talking about exactly the intestinal dysbiosis, the foreground bowel disease - salmonellosis, klebsiellezy, viral diarrhea, etc. This is because they are accompanied by inflammation of the mucosa of a gastrointestinal tract. Even catarrhal syndrome with SARS will manifest itself in the gut;
- nutritional reasons, i.e. caused by an unbalanced diet, particularly in children often (incorrectly complementary feeding in the first year of life, as well as the passion for different diets in adolescent girls and young men - bodybuilding and bodybuilding);
- important role played by stress conditions. There are more dependent hormonal status;
- important role played by children allergiccondition, atopic dermatitis, diathesis. After a rash on the skin - only a small indicator of what is happening in the body. Much remains inside and is especially important food sensitization, ie allergic to any food.
- congenital dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract and enzymes (e.g., malabsorption syndrome);
- somatic diseases. And it, of course, include diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Such as gastritis, Gastroduodenitis, intestinal atony and paresis different, colitis, liver disease and gall bladder. There will also be different and postoperative conditions (resection of the stomach, gall bladder);
- and the last group - the impact of differentdrugs. First of all, it is anti-microbial and narcotic drugs, as well as means of influencing gastric motility, secretion of enzymes, enveloping means.
So, to understand the basic causes of the large groups of dysbiosis, you can try to identify dysbiosis.
How do you know that need help?
It is important to remember that small children dysbiosisto distinguish from the normal physiological processes taking place is quite difficult. Therefore, an important role is played by "precursors." For example, my mother knows that her baby has recently been ill with pneumonia, in which antibiotics were used, but the prevention of dysbiosis in the form described below medications was not performed. Of course, in this case, we think it is a dysbacteriosis. The same applies to all the above mentioned conditions in which it is possible appearance.
So, the easiest way is to scatology- Examination of feces. Here, in the first look at how The received food is metabolized by the body. If the analysis of a lot of undigested muscle fibers, fatty acids, fiber, starch, so the body can absorb the food is bad. And one reason is in violation of the microflora and something that does not allow it to "work". This is possible with dysbacteriosis when pathogens suppress obligate flora. Also the analysis often found a large number of white blood cells and intestinal epithelial cells, which appear in it due to inflammation of the intestinal wall, left without its microorganisms. And of course, the color and consistency of the stools themselves will know about violations in the body - liquid stool, abundant, frequent, with plenty of water, usually light in color. This baby will always ask for a drink and exsicosis can develop in severe cases - dehydration. The smallest kids will stop gaining weight, even begin to lose weight. The skin becomes dry and loses its elasticity.
Of course, in such cases, children need urgent hospitalization and correction status. We talk about the non-severe cases of intestinal dysbiosis after, for example, antibiotics.
Treatment of dysbiosis
The first and crucial in the treatment of dysbiosis is power correction. So, pay attention to the readers of our siteproducts that should be excluded from the diet in order to avoid irritation of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract and enhance peristalsis. This is to keep water in the body. That is, stop to eat raw vegetables, fruits, except bananas and baked apples. Because meat is allowed lean chicken, rabbit, cereals - rice, semolina (if not allergic), millet. And all the cereals used in shabby form. Good to drink simply congee. From vegetables retain only potatoes. Dairy products are eliminated in full. From drinks are permissible tea strong, sweet water, stewed fruit (and only the compote without berries), broth chamomile jelly. Juices and carbonated drinks - Absolutely not.
Often, treatment of dysbacteriosis in children apply bacteriophages. This bacterial viruses which selectively kill the cause of dysbacteriosis. But their use is possible only after a certain known pathogen.
Probiotics. Today it is the most diverse and often used by the group drugs to treat dysbacteriosis in children. The name speaks for itself - "for life" (antibiotics - "against life"). Their operating principle is laid down in them - lactic acid bacteria "stand up for" the intestine and inhibit microorganisms that cause decay processes.
Prebiotics are stimulants probiotics. Well simbiotiki - a complex preparations, including both pre- and probiotics. Consider the most commonly used ones:
- Atsipol has a multifactorial action, is highly active, and increases immune resistance of the organism.
apply: children up to 6 months, 5 doses per day, over 6 months, 10-15 doses per day in 2-3 divided doses for 30-40 minutes before meals. The drug is dissolved in water at room temperature at the rate of one teaspoon per dose.
apply: children up to 2 years: 1 capsule 3 times a day; over 2 years 1-2 capsules 3 times a day. Young children capsule is opened and blended with a small amount of liquid. The course of 5-7 days.
apply: children up to a year for polpaketika 2 times a day, children 30 minutes from 1 to 3 years: 1 capsule or 1 sachet 1-2 times a day, over 3 years, 2 capsules or 2 bags 1-2 times a day before food.
Apply: for children up to 6 months 5-10 doses per day; from 6 months to 3 years - 1-15 doses per day; older than 3 years - on 15-20 doses a day for 2-3 hours for 30 minutes before eating.
Apply: for children older than 3 years on 10-12 doses per day in 2-3 divided doses for 30 minutes before eating. For the dissolution of the drug use boiled water at the rate of 1 dose of 1 teaspoon.
Apply: for children from 1 year to 3 years: 1 powder 2-3 times a day, chewable tablet for children 2-3 years: 1 tablet, from 3 years to 2 tablet 2-3 times a day regardless of the meal. The course of 5 days.
Apply: for children older than 2 years, 1-2 capsules 2 times a day regardless of the meal. The course of 10-14 days.
At present, widely used products,containing bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Most widely used: Bifidok, Bifilin, dairy bifidumbakterin, biolact enriched, Imunele, Activia, Actimel, etc. Their only negative - the shelf life of some products are directly dependent on the content of beneficial bacteria. That is, the longer the duration of storage, the fewer bacteria they contain.