Classification of femoral neck fractures
our site found that the prognosis of treatment successsuch injury is largely dependent on in what place of damaged bone. It is believed that the closer the fracture to the joint head, the more likely the development of necrosis.
Fractures of the femoral neck at the location are divided into three types:
- bazistservikalnye - are those that are located in the transition zone of the neck into the body of the bone;
- cervical fractures are located directly on the neck;
- subcapital held under the joint head and are considered the most difficult to treat cases.
Bone fracture process can be dividedboth in the horizontal and vertical direction. The vertical position of the line is considered to be less favorable, as fraught with offsets and the development of complications. Depending on the shift distinguish these types of bone fractures:
- valgus - when the joint head is moved upward and away in the direction of increasing the angle between the neck and the body of the bone;
- varus - the reverse situation, in which the head goes down, reducing the angle;
- impacted - fracture, wherein one fragment includes the other.
Symptoms of the disease
If untreated, these injuries can lead to serious consequences, among which are the following:
- Aseptic necrosis - a joint head necrosis and its subsequent dissolution. It appears as a result of disorders of blood circulation in the affected location.
- When nonunion bone debris between them can form a false joint, removal of which is possible only by surgery.
- Venous thrombosis - another dangerous complication,the cause of which is to limit physical activity. Thrombosis in the most severe cases can lead to death, so the patient needs good care.
- Pneumonia may develop on the background of stagnation of phlegm in the bronchi and lungs. Prevention of pneumonia are special breathing exercises.
- Postoperative complications arise in the event of improper installation screws loosening metal prostheses, rejection of foreign materials by the body, etc.
- Failure to comply with hygiene standards in the course of the operation could lead to the development of infections.
- By breaking the consequences can be attributed to psychological problems: depression, depression.
- Long bed rest in the absence of proper care is fraught with the development of bedsores.
- Among the complications can be identified degenerative joint destruction.
- Fracture of the femoral neck is often accompanied by a general decline in immunity, against which can develop many diseases.
- Older people with such injuries are often exacerbated by chronic illness.
hip fracture treatment
Injuries of this type are among the mostcomplex. Even with treatment literacy and good health of the patient complete bone fusion occurs not earlier than six months after the injury. The most effective method of treatment is considered to be surgery, which can be divided into two types:
- Osteosynthesis involves a comparison of the bone and their subsequent fixation with the help of special devices: plates, screws, etc...
- Endoprosthesis - is a complete replacement of the fragmentartificial bone graft. Such a method is most commonly used for older patients older than 70 years. When arthroplasty recovery period is significantly reduced, decreasing the risk of complications. damaged joint can be subjected to small loads already after 3 weeks.
There are cases when resort to operationalintervention impossible. Contraindications considered various factors such as patient age, fracture characteristics, health status, intolerance to anesthesia or other risks associated with conducting operations. In such cases, conservative treatment is appointed. It is a limb traction, its full immobilization, application of a plaster cast. This method is less effective than surgery, it is not always possible to completely restore motor activity of man. In relation to elderly patients treated conservatively trying to use as little as possible.
An important role in the restoration of the patient playsrehabilitation period. It includes a set of measures aimed at speedy coalescence of bone debris, minimizing the risk of complications, the resumption of a person's ability to walk. For successful rehabilitation of patients need such procedure:
- Massage different muscle groups. It helps to improve blood circulation, prevent the development of pressure sores, avoid the risk of congestive pneumonia. Massage causes muscles in the desired tone, does not allow them to atrophy. This procedure is considered to be effective against osteoporosis and helps to restore the function of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
- Therapeutic exercises - a set of exercises,which avoids many of the negative consequences of fracture, prevent muscle atrophy, develop their blood supply. During gymnastics restored motor activity of the patient, normalized muscle tone, improves the function of the heart and respiratory system. Remedial gymnastics specialist conducts until the person is hospitalized in a hospital. After discharge, it is advisable not to throw the exercises, it is best to call a specialist at home and continue the session.
- Drug therapy is also considered importantan integral part of the patient's rehabilitation. Depending on the situation, your doctor may prescribe a variety of drugs, such as painkillers, sedatives, drugs to restore vascular blood supply, and other anticoagulants.
- Many patients with this problem is requiredpsychological help. Being a long time in the immobilized state, a person may become depressed, feel like a burden to the family. Often, these patients have even thought about suicide, so the therapy is very important in the rehabilitation period.
A man with a fractured hip, being constantly in the supine position, in need of care and assistance. Such care includes the following activities:
- Performing daily hygiene. The patient should be regularly washed with warm water and a damp sponge or cloth using special tools. Compliance with the rules of hygiene also involves brushing, washing, combing.
- The patient should be provided to the shipspravleniya natural needs. In case of delay or urinary incontinence, which is a frequent postoperative phenomenon, a man temporarily set a urinary catheter.
- Lie the patient needs frequent changes of clothes andbed linen. It is also important to monitor, to not accumulate on the bed of food remnants, crumbs, any skin irritants items. The folds in the bed should also be smooth.
- The duties of the person caring for bedridden patients include regular feeding.