There are many types of pneumonia,which differ in origin (type of agent), the place of the location and the extent, severity and nature of the flow and the presence of functional disorders.
Most of all pneumonia occurrence provokepneumococci (30-40% of the total number of pathogens), viruses (approximately 10%) and Mycoplasma (15-20%). Today, however, almost half of cases the cause of pneumonia can not be established.
There is a so-called working group of pneumonia, which is based on the clinical and pathogenetic and epidemiological systems:
- Community-acquired pneumonia.
- Nosocomial (Nosocomial) pneumonia.
- Pneumonia in immunodeficient states.
- Flowing atypical pneumonia.
For each of these groups has a specific number of infectious agents. Factors provoking pneumonia:
- smoking and drinking;
- heart failure;
- chronic diseases of the bronchi obstructive nature;
- direct effect on the respiratory system adverse environmental factors and professional factors of production;
- nasopharyngeal chronic diseases;
- congenital abnormalities in the bronchopulmonary system:
- state of immunodeficiency;
- elderly age;
- prolonged bed rest.
The forecast is not detected in time, and as a result, time has not cured pneumonia disappointing - complications of pleurisy, lung abscess and swelling does not take long to wait.
Immediately call your doctor at home if:
- you suffer from a strong paroxysmal cough, pain in the chest, heat;
- you feel chills, you find it hard to breathe - you "stone" on the chest;
- you have recently been ill with flu or got rid of colds and suddenly felt very bad.
While waiting for the doctor, you can take an antipyreticand syrup agent (tablets) of cough. When the diagnosis and treatment assignment doctor guided inspection program that includes mandatory study and research carried out depending on the evidence.
- General blood analysis and urine.
- Radiography of the lungs in two projections.
- Sputum smear, Gram-stained.
- Planting of sputum with a quantitative assessment of flora and determination of its sensitivity to antibiotics.
Research on the testimony:
- A study of respiratory function during ventilation violations.
- The study of blood gases and acid-base balance in critically ill patients with respiratory failure.
- Pleural puncture, followed by the study of the pleural fluid of patients with the presence of fluid in the pleura.
- Imaging for suspected lung destruction of lung tissue or lung tumor.
- Serological tests (detection of antibodies to the pathogen) with SARS.
- Biochemical analysis of blood with severe pneumonia in people older than 60 years.
- A study of the immunological status with the protracted course of disease in persons with symptoms of immunodeficiency.
- Lung scintigraphy for suspected pulmonary embolism (pulmonary embolism).
- Bronchoscopy - a suspected tumor, with hemoptysis.
Studies of chronic pneumonia suggest the following procedure:
- Complete blood count, urine.
- Blood chemistryESR, the content of protein fractions, sialic acid, fibrin, seromucoid, haptoglobin.
- Radiography of the lungs in three projections.
- Imaging the lungs.
- Bronchoscopy, bronchography.
- Sputum: its Cytology, antibiotic sensitivity test, test for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, atypical cells.
Treatment of pneumonia
general specialists (internists, pediatricians, family doctors) can treat uncomplicated pneumonia, while its severe forms require immediate hospitalization.
Preparations antimicrobial drug groupresources - the foundation on which is based the treatment of pneumonia. Typically, more than one drug is used in treating diseases complicated, but a combination of several. our website reminds its readers that their dosage and period of application determines only the doctor, there is no initiative in the presence of even a simple form of pneumonia should not be!
Today, in the treatment of pneumonia of different etiology experts prefer the following groups of antibiotics:
- macrolides (macrofoams, clarithromycin, fromilid, sumamed);
- Penicillin and its derivatives (flemoksin, amoxiclav, augmentin, ampioks);
- cephalosporins (cefazolin, Zinnat, cefixime, ceftriaxone);
- respiratory fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin).
antibiotic treatment course takes an average of 7 to 10 days.
Preparations by which expectorated andliquefies phlegm, used in cough with phlegm. It may be, for example, ACC, bromhexine, Lasolvan. Patients who suffer from dry nonproductive cough, such drugs are not prescribed.
Shortness of breath - reason to make an appointment bronchodilatorsdrugs, the best option of which are inhaled drugs (Flomax, salbutamol). Most quickly they act, when used with a nebulizer. Eufillin and its derivatives (teopek) inhalants can be replaced.
If the readings are required, conduct infusiontherapy, which involves a saline drip (for example, Disol, saline, Ringer's solution). In severe pneumonia conduct therapies with immunoglobulin for intravenous administration (eg, Octagam, pentaglobin).
Also, be sure to recommend taking a multivitamin. At high temperature (38,0-38,5 ° C) administered antipyretics.
To diet patients are put forward strict requirements -it should be a full and rich in various vitamins. In the first days after the deterioration of the health recommend sparing food: soups, fruit drinks, fruit. Later diet extend other foods rich in proteins, fats and carbohydrates (they must be easily assimilated). If no patient complaints of heart failure, excessive drinking allowed (up to 3 liters per day).