The fact that a mole can not be removed without permission,It is known to all. But what to do if a mole or spot that appears suddenly begin to change in size, they formed crusts, or they start to bleed? I offer readers our website to understand what actions should be taken to prevent undesirable consequences and complications.
So, the first thing to do when it detectssuddenly began to grow a mole, the appearance on her hair, change the size of birthmarks - consult a dermatologist or oncologist. This must be done because of the above symptoms are alarming factors in the development of malignant tumors of the skin.
What could be the skin growths?
There is a kind of belief - if the body of a lotmoles, warts, or warts, so a person has a predisposition to cancer. And this is partly true. Despite the fact that this is just the observation, the man with the number of moles of more than 8 on the body and the face should be carefully observe them, avoid excessive sun exposure (not tanning), do not stay in the sun from 11 to 15 hours, wearing underwear and clothes that do not traumatic surface moles.
Even a small amount should not be molesignore safety measures. This, of course, does not mean that necessarily will develop a malignant tumor with excessive sun exposure. There are both benign and borderline tumors, and malignant. The fundamental difference between them, as well as all tumors, is the ability to metastasize to other organs, give complications in the form of lymphadenitis and cause of death.
Thus, tumors are benign nevi, epithelial tumor, originating from sweat (siringomy) and sebaceous (atheroma, adenoma) Glands of vessels (lymphangioma, hemangiomas), mesenchymal origin, as well as fibrous (fibroids), nervous (neurofibromas) and fat (lipomas) tissues.
Borderline tumors (precancerous) presented keratoacanthoma, senile keratomas, xeroderma pigmentosum, and other less common tumors.
Let's try to figure out when to suspect every possible skin cancer.
Benign skin tumors
Nevi, and "the people" - birthmarksCan occur at any age. Their number is also not limited. In some families, the location and shape of nevi is inherited. This is confirmed by the main theory of the origin of malignant tumors - people are born with the tumor cells, but their growth and tumor manifestation time is determined by the state of the organism as a whole.
Thus, nevi may be different butnecessarily sharply limited edges, and the shape and color of a wide variety. The surface can be birthmarks and striped and smooth. Possible option and warty growths nevus with a diameter of 2 cm. They should be distinguished from soft fibroids by the presence of hyperkeratotic surface layers (thick crusts, similar to peeling).
Of particular danger is the pigmentEdge nevus that has a melanin and is able to transform into melanoma. It is most often congenital. Identify it possible for a number of features: a kind of a flat knot brown, dark gray or dry rough surface; without hair (even vellus). Dimensions of this birthmark may reach 5 cm.
In adolescence may appear lentigines. In any area of the body are benign looks smooth patches of brown, oval-shaped, with a diameter of 1.5 cm. Also, lentigines (only called senile) appears in the elderly in the open areas of the body.
Quite often, people of mature and elderlyage meet and atheroma. This tumor develops from the sebaceous glands. Place localization - all over the body, but more often in areas with large concentrations of sebaceous glands (scalp, face, forehead, nadkopchikovaya region). Atheroma is lifted above the surface of a single education, painless, skin over which is not changed. In its inflammation and festering skin turns red and may appear painful sensations. Most people atheroma does not cause discomfort, some periodically "squeeze" the contents of which can take the form of a dense white mass, and a translucent liquid. Atheroma removed surgically excised together with the capsule, or relapses.
Another frequent benignneoplasms are hemangiomas. If capillary hemangioma can take up to half of the face (being a serious cosmetic defect), the cavernous hemangiomas are located deeper, larger sizes do not reach. Color may be different (from red to bluish black) and depends primarily on the structure of the tumor itself. Treatment of hemangiomas surgical and consists in excision of the tumor with the underlying layers. But there are a number of problems: first, capillary hemangiomas have large dimensions, so the operation often requires a skin graft transplant. The difficulty is that you need to find a close in structure to skin, while respecting other laws and transplantation techniques. The second problem is situated deep cavernous excision of the tumor, in step violated the integrity of many structures of the body.
Precancerous skin growths
The group is constantly precancerous tumorsthe subject of dispute of many scientists. Which of them should be considered precancerous, and that even the initial stage of cancer ... We will adhere to certain tactics - this group comprises of the disease, which if left untreated can lead to rebirth in the malignancy.
So, to precancerous skin lesions include xeroderma pigmentosum, cutaneous horn, keratoakantomu, actinic keratosis.
Xeroderma pigmentosum is a geneticdue to a tumor, which is beginning to emerge from childhood. Such people instinctively avoid the sun, in some cases, may develop photophobia. After even brief sun exposure on the skin appear pale pink or red spots, which soon form areas of pigmentation that resemble freckles or telangiectasia. After a few years in such areas the skin becomes thin, dry. These skin lesions may be accompanied by a lesion of the eye (keratoconjunctivitis), the iris. People with the disease should avoid any sun exposure, apply sunscreen and lotions. Remove items xeroderma produce laser diathermocoagulation, cryodestruction or surgically within healthy tissues.
Actinic keratosis (or solar) appears at theolder people in public areas of the body in the form of rashes first orange or yellow, with a diameter of not more than 1 cm. Then, these rashes are formed flakes, dry rind, which is difficult to peel. If you try to "tear off" the element appears a little bleeding.
It is worth paying close attention to the moment when the seal will appear at the base of the element, or it will start to bleed easily. This is the first sign of primary malignancy of the tumor!
In women older than 42 years around the nipple and itredness plot with infiltration, scaling, weeping. After some time, it formed crusts, retracted nipple. This Paget's disease. The process of developing for a long time (up to ten years) and some oncologists believe its initial stage of cancer.
Malignant neoplasms of the skin
Differentiate malignanciesthe skin is difficult to under an hour, and an experienced doctor. Contributing factors have been listed above. For readers of our site, I note only that, ideally, any new formation should be examined for the presence of malignant cells in it.
Basal cell carcinoma appears in the open areas of the body,suffer from excessive sun exposure. In its development most often plays the role of genetic factors, but one of the features of the tumor - the ability to differentiate toward various structures. That is, there was a basal cell carcinoma, and several years formed squamous skin cancer.
At the beginning of basal cell carcinoma looks like a whitish nodulecrust color on the surface. There are some types of education, therefore, should be considered separate diseases and malignant neoplasms.
Squamous cell carcinoma (epithelioma) occurs less frequently andmore severe. Usually it is localized in the perianal region, on the red border of lips, on the external genitals. From other cancer it is almost indistinguishable, quickly gives metastases. Initially, this globular formation with a diameter of up to 1 cm in the skin. Then as they grow inwards or outwards on the surface appear ulceration, warts. Then the surface ulcerate, becomevery painful, dense edge, uneven. After metastasis to the lymph nodes rapidly deteriorating condition of the person. Death can occur from both the bleeding caused by the collapse of the tumor and damage to blood vessels, and from cachexia (a sharp depletion of the body). Surgical treatment is also carried out with the removal of not only the tumor, but lymph nodes. If necessary, a radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
Melanoma is the most famous and oftenemerging malignant neoplasm of the skin. Feature - finding the primary focus exclusively in the skin. Most often, melanoma is progression and malignant degeneration with trauma or severe burn of the pigmented nevus. Thus, a direct risk factor for degeneration appears - trauma to the pigmented nevus. Moreover, birthmarks located on the nail bed, perianal region, on the soles of the feet, in places of frequent rubbing with clothes are especially dangerous. This is the most striking example of rebirth.
The first injury or excessive sun exposurebirthmark gradually increases in size, it begins to peel off. At the same time, simultaneously, it increases the possibility of re-injury. The result is bleeding, festering, infection. This further increases the possibility of injury recurring. Next there is a tumor, flat with irregular edges, or shaped, resembling nevus. The surface is rough, rough, weeping, on her constantly formed blood crusts.
Diagnosis of melanoma is usually carried out bydetermining the level of tumor accumulation of radioactive phosphorus. It accumulates it ten times in comparison with healthy tissue. Also significant is the tumor temperature (4 degrees) higher than the healthy tissue. The radioactive method is used when deciding on the amount of surgery. The diagnosis is imperative to make histological and cytological examination of smears from the surface of the ulceration. cancer treatment - surgery with the possible use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
And, of course, the prognosis depends on the disease,First, from the time of detection of the tumor. Therefore, once again it should be recalled the importance of prevention. In this case, it boils down to the three most important aspects: to follow closely the changes in tumors, avoid high insolation and the first doubt, consult a specialist.