In 1819, the inventor of the stethoscope, the Frenchman ReneLaennec, the first to describe the clinical characteristics of the disease and announced the name of a mysterious disease - cirrhosis. Today, the disease is already with what can not be confused, the highest mortality from digestive diseases (except cancer) occurs in people suffering from liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis exposed mainly people over forty years, while men suffer from the disease twice as often as women.
Red, but not freckled
Cirrhosis - scarring of the liver by deformationdue to infectious diseases, intoxications, metabolic disorders. From cirrhosis predominantly affects the liver, a disease which "paints" in yellow color (hence the name - from the Greek «kirros» means "red," "lemon yellow"), the kidneys and the lungs.
Cirrhosis of the liver - a chronic and progressivepathology which is considered reversible if diagnosed early on it. Hepatocytes, liver cells dying due to local inflammation. In their place are formed "dead" areas of connective tissue that surrounds the surviving cells. The remaining hepatocytes are actively dividing, but their job in full can not be due to violation of the integrity of the structure of the body - so there is liver failure.
The causes of cirrhosis
By origin distinguish cirrhosis:
- as a result of viral liver disease (risk - patients with chronic hepatitis C, AT);
- as a result of malnutrition;
- due to chronic alcohol intoxication. One of the main causes of the disease - more than 40% regularly consume alcohol in a few years people will inevitably fall ill with cirrhosis of the liver;
- cholestatic (characterized by severe jaundice and a painful skin itch);
- as a continuation of toxic hepatitis;
- genetically inherited;
- developing in TB. syphilis, Brucellosis;
- due to autoimmune hepatitis - a hyperactive immune activity of the body, resulting in an inflammation of the liver tissue;
- due to the birth of children without the bile ducts;
- as a result of liver disease prolonged use of drugs;
- other etiologies, in particular, arise for unknown reasons (cryptogenic).
Stages of the disease
Lifetime abstinence from alcohol -the best start in the treatment of cirrhosis of the liver. The regime should be gentle and limited physical activity. It is very important to bed (because of the horizontal position of the liver is actively supplied with blood, which helps speed up the regenerative processes). The patient is assigned to the use of food within the table №5 (no fried and fatty foods. The daily energy value of the average 2700 kcal). The purpose of such a diet - to ensure complete patient's diet, which helps to normalize the activity of the liver and bile flow activation at a convenient time for the patient's body. When a diet is stored in the liver glycogen, fat and getting better cholesterol metabolism, stimulates bile secretion.
The basis of the treatment of cirrhosis of the liver make drugs that improve metabolism in hepatocytes and normalize liver membranescell - kokarboksilaza, essential phospholipids. In edematous ascites syndrome shows an application native concentrated plasma and 20% albumin solution. In the active phase of viral cirrhosis prescribe the use of glucocorticoid hormones. A promising direction in the fight against disease is stem cell transplantation.
Liver transplantation is the ultimate way outa situation where a patient threatens to hepatic coma and death. The donor organ available from a deceased person who had a healthy liver from a living donor or a portion of the liver is transplanted to the patient. For human donor such an operation is not dangerous - because of their unique regenerative capacities liver quickly recovers 85% of its original mass.
Therapy is aimed at the normalization of the systemdigestion, relief from intestinal dysbiosis, elimination of chronic inflammation in the abdominal cavity. Also takes into account the treatment of dyspeptic disorders, providing nutrition, accompanied by vitamin and enzyme preparations that do not contain bile acids (pancreatin, mezim forte).
Patients with an inactive form of cirrhosis of the liver in a special medical therapy does not require, them enough basic therapy.
General advice to patients with liver cirrhosis
Forget the rush - you should drop everything as soon as you feel fatigue. You can not lift weights, which can cause bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract.
Keep an eye on the work of the intestine, a good ratechairs - at least 1-2 times per day. To achieve this result will help the drug prescribed by a doctor with the content of lactulose (dufalak), a dose which varies from three teaspoons to one to two tablespoons per day (assigned individually).
MirCovetov recommends limiting or completelyeliminate salt from your diet, especially if there is a background of edema and ascites. The fluid can be used not more than half a liter per day. Make it a rule every day to measure your weight and waist at the navel (an increase of parameters is a signal of fluid retention in the body).
Pay particular attention to a balanced diet and the correct mode of the day.