The forms of the disease
Depending on the clinical characteristics of the two forms is isolated pathological states:
- Acute renal failure - appearsunpredictable, while dramatically reducing the amount of output from the body of urine (oliguria) or urine production ceases altogether (anuria). Acute condition, but nonetheless reversible.
- Chronic renal failure - a consequence of chronic kidney disease (glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, Amyloidosis and the like). For the development of pathology, namely to replace the connective tissue of renal parenchyma, it requires more than one year. As a result of this form of the disease in the kidneys begin deep irreversible changes.
Causes of acute forms of the disease
- Impaired renal hemodynamics.
- Severe intoxication (drugs, poison snake or an insect, "chemistry").
- Infection of an infectious disease (eg, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome).
- Acute glomerulonephritis and acute pyelonephritis.
- Violation of the outflow of urine.
- Mechanical kidney trauma, removal of a solitary kidney.
Causes of chronic forms of the disease
If the patient was not provided competent assistance, the second stage of the arrester terminal period ends with a fatal outcome in most cases. It features:
- The patient dyspnea. coughIn which stands frothy sputum pink hue (due to pulmonary edema).
- Bleeding under the skin, bruising, internal bleeding.
- Drowsiness, dizziness.
Chronic renal failure (CRF).
Symptoms of chronic diseases occur when the kidney structure is undergoing significant changes.
- Changing the volume of urine (increases or decreases).
- At night, urine stands out more than the day.
- Swelling of the face in the morning.
- General weakness and malaise.
If not immediately respond to these alarmingsigns of chronic renal failure, end-stage disease occurs. Symptoms indicate uremia (blood saturation with salts of uric acid) and pathological changes in fluid and electrolyte balance:
- There are a very large swelling all over the body.
- In the internal cavities of fluid accumulates.
- There is shortness of breath and cough, indicating cardiac asthma or pulmonary edema.
- Increased blood pressure.
- Disturbed vision.
- Nausea, vomiting, ammonia breath.
- I have a stomachache.
- Reduced body weight.
- The skin itches, becomes yellow.
- Observed hemorrhages under the skin.
- In women, menstruation disappears.
- Clouding of consciousness to a state of coma.
If you have these symptoms need to patient dangerous to transfer to hemodialysis, otherwise people will not survive.
Diagnosis of the disease
Identification and confirmation of renaldeficiency usually does not cause any medical difficulties. The main indicator of pathology can be called a persistent increase in the concentration of nitrogen metabolites and potassium in the blood against the background of declining volumes of urine.
Laboratory diagnosis involves measuringamount of urine, the concentration of substances such as creatinine, urea, serum electrolytes. The nature of the renal blood flow was determined by renal angiography.
Treatment of renal failure
The acute form of the disease.
Significant improvements in kidney soughtusing combination therapy. The first prescribed a special diet, correcting fluid and electrolyte and acid-base balance, normalizes blood pressure, eliminate anemia and heart failure.
The main objective of the traditional treatment of acuterenal failure is to neutralize the causes of which was the starting point for the development of pathology. In the context of resuscitation must be immediately taken to eliminate the shock, dehydration, Hemolysis, poisoning and so on. D.
One of the most effective ways to treatsudden and complete cessation of kidney function today consider hemodialysis or extracorporeal blood purification. The device, which is carried out using a procedure known more as an artificial kidney. The number of procedures and their duration depends on the degree of neglect of the disease, the average session lasts more than 3 hours. Despite the effectiveness of hemodialysis stable condition of the patient can be achieved only for a short period. For continuous good health of the patient is necessary to carry out the procedure regularly.
Of the medicines used diuretics,infusion therapy, antibiotics. If necessary, prescribe blood transfusion or blood components, in the case of severe anemia makes red blood cell transfusions.
The chronic form of the disease.
In the treatment of chronic renal failure are relevant the following activities:
- Assign medical diet with a small percentageratio of protein and salt, which helps reduce the level of toxic substances (ammonia, urea) and prevents the accumulation of salts and fluids.
- Patients with preserved diuresis,discharged for furosemide surgical removal of fluid and toxins from the body. Simultaneously administered bicarbonate solution and sodium chloride sodium, to avoid dehydration.
- Electrolytic balance is reduced as follows: hypokalemia treated with potassium drugs veroshpiron and hyperkalemia - diuretics, insulin and glucose.
- The combination of diuretics and angiotensin II (captopril, enalapril) is used to normalize blood pressure.
- To prevent the development of bone disease, prescribe drugs vitamin D3.
- When complete loss of working capacity of the patient's kidney hemodialysis support.
- Kidney transplant - not readily available, but the most effective treatment today.
Prevention of renal failure
MirCovetov draws the attention of its readers: to prevent this dangerous disease, it is necessary first of all to eliminate the causes that provoke her appearance. For example, significantly reduces the risk of acute and chronic kidney failure, a competent and operative treatment of pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis, urolithiasis.