Toxoplasmosis - widespreaddisease of humans and animals. In support of this we give that up to 70% of the population may be infected with Toxoplasma, and 50% - it is almost the norm. Thus 99.99% of those infected never experienced, not experience and hardly ever anything bad experience in this regard.
The real, really real, reallycredible and very (!), toxoplasmosis is a serious danger when a woman previously had no contact with Toxoplasma, infected during pregnancy. This danger does not extend to a pregnant and the fetus. Toxoplasma is able to cross the placenta and cause disease in the unborn child. The severity of the fetus is closely linked to the timing of pregnancy - the younger the fruit, the more severe the disease called congenital toxoplasmosis. The severity of the disease (especially when the infection in the first three months of pregnancy) is so great that there is fetal death. But more often the child is born with very severe lesions of the nervous system (especially the brain), eyes, liver, and spleen.
Of considerable importance is the fact thatplacental permeability to Toxoplasma varies - it (permeability) is higher, the longer the duration of pregnancy. So, if infected in the first three months of pregnancy, the likelihood that the placenta is not "cope" and Toxoplasma strike the fruit, is about 15%. In the second trimester, the risk increases to 25% in the third - nearly 70%.
Congenital toxoplasmosis has a different shape,sometimes its manifestations after birth missing (or rather, can not be detected), and further visual impairment and mental retardation (often quite pronounced) are arranged sad diagnostic point of the i.
If during pregnancy the womanToxoplasma infection is diagnosed, then, of course, carried out emergency treatment. But congenital toxoplasmosis is very tragic in its consequences. And, as it is sad, any treatment only reduces the probability of extremely heavy defeat of the fetus (approximately two times), but does not guarantee that all will be well. Chance of having a full-fledged person very little - hands and legs of the child will be, but hope for the intact brain and normal eyes is almost there.
One consolation is that toxoplasmosis fetal loss may happen only once (only when a pregnancy). All subsequent children will already be protected by antibodies formed.
Not surprisingly, toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, withGiven the complete futility of treating the unborn child, it is seen as a direct indication for it (pregnancy) termination, of course, with the consent of the pregnancy itself.
Nature itself is actively concerned about the fact thatBorn to avoid: the earlier the infection is almost always a miscarriage. But now, with the threat of failure of doctors can save almost any pregnancy, and hence it is important that during the treatment was carried out and a corresponding examination.
Methods of diagnosis of toxoplasmosis
Survey - is generally a separate issue, because the amount of stress and disruption of the threats that have arisen due to incorrect interpretation of the results - a surprisingly large.
But in reality, things are not so difficult.
A variety of diagnostic methodstoxoplasmosis, but the most reliable on the right is recognized as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The essence of this method - the definition of specific antibodies to Toxoplasma, with not only answers the question, have them (antibodies) or not, and is determined by their (antibodies) number.
In order to properly understand the ELISA results,It should not possess special knowledge of the complex physiology. The fact that immediately after the infection of the body produces specific antibodies (immunoglobulins) are called IgM (or - or - early antibodies). Saved (and found) in the blood are the most in a year, but, as a rule, and even less, and then disappear, so that more will never appear. Following the IgM in the blood appear IgG, which are saved for all subsequent human life.
It is easy to see that:
- if detected IgM, a man recently became infected;
- if it found of IgG, IgM and no, it is a question that people have already developed immunity to Toxoplasma, because the infection occurred in the past;
- More complex for treatment options. For example, I found a small amount of IgG and IgM. In this case, the study was repeated after 2 weeks, and if the amount of IgG increased, then continued to actively develop immunity, if left at the same level - so the disease is already in the past (just in the not too distant past).
Interpretation of the results of an enzyme immunoassay in newborns has its own specifics, but, in turn, allows you to answer a question on the presence or absence of congenital toxoplasmosis.
Theoretically, in a civilized societyPregnancy - the planned event. And screening for toxoplasmosis "before" - is very desirable and very appropriate. For the intensity of preventive measures really it depends on what your relationship with Toxoplasma is the body of the future mother.
If it detected IgG, so it is an occasion to breatherelief because during pregnancy the fetus will be protected. If IgM - «fresh» infection, conceiving one must wait. If antibodies are not found - be careful, firmly grasp the activities for the prevention of infection and follow them strictly.
Prevention of toxoplasmosis
Unfortunately, in this geographical areapregnancy planning is the exception rather than the rule. But it does not hurt to know and understand the significance of the results of the above survey and during pregnancy is already held. But that's when it detects IgM already have not to wait and take a very responsible and often very unpleasant decisions.
These preventive measures we have ingenerally clear and logically follow from the already infected methods described above. At the same time their transfer may be not more than (that, by and large, is valid for any infection):
- excluded from the food thermally unprocessed meat;
- not try the raw beef;
- not sparing the soap and the time to wash your hands after handling the meat, after working in the fields, the garden;
- carefully wash vegetables, fruits, herbs;
- to examine and, if one must, treat, and even easier - to remove from the house cat.
That is to say, individual preventionevent, allowing the woman has no immunity to protect the fetus during pregnancy. At the same time relevant and more global actions, aiming at reducing the spread of Toxoplasma in nature. These actions are most closely associated with cats. Last fall at home and homeless. Home treated and examined, and catch the street, despite the protests of animal lovers, try (obviously to no avail) to eliminate as a class.
With regard to home Murka - useful exception of a diet of raw meat, desirable (obligatory) regular disinfection of its sandy toilet.
Since the final eradication of streetcats unlikely good idea to pay attention to children's sandboxes. Theoretically, sanitary control bodies must regularly examine and disinfect the sand, but it is more correct not to rely on her aunt in a white robe, and arrange cover with plastic wrap or a sandbox with wooden boards (when a child, and no cats coating can be removed).
A few words about the treatment. Some drugs (antibiotics, sulfonamides, etc.) Have pronounced activity against Toxoplasma. Number of drugs are not particularly high, but the selection, however, is. And the appropriate treatment regimen, which is usually designed for long-term human and animal - is used several courses and certain drug combinations.
The effectiveness of treatment is high only in acute toxoplasmosis, but leaves much to be desired (to put it mildly) in chronic infection, concomitant immunosuppression, intrauterine infection.
This implies an urgent needoften think about preventive actions. For terrible in its consequences, congenital toxoplasmosis is surprisingly easy to prevent, and ought to do quite a bit - to want to get information and to observe basic rules of personal hygiene.