Psittacosis (synonym: psittacosis) - an acute infectious disease,
characterized by fever, general intoxication, lung damage, central
nervous system, enlarged liver and spleen.
The causative agent of the disease is chlamydia (Chlamydia psittaci),
in humans develops intracellularly stored in the external environment
up to 2-3 weeks.
The reservoir of the pathogen and the source of infection are domestic
and wild birds. The greatest epidemiological importance poultry -
especially ducks and turkeys; pet birds - parrots, budgerigars, canaries;
The most susceptible individuals are constantly in contact
with birds: workers of poultry farms, meat-packing plant, etc. In everyday life infection.
observed mainly single disease, but there may be flash family
(Usually 1-2 weeks after the acquisition of infected birds). Disease
more likely to occur during the cold season.
Infection occurs in most cases the airborne (inhalation of dust)
by - by inhalation of dust containing chlamydia (pieces of dried excreta
birds, as well as discharge from the beak, contaminated particles down). Patients ornithosis
danger to others not represented.
The infection enters the body through the mucous membranes of the respiratory
tract. The pathogen is introduced in small bronchi and bronchioles, the smallest dust
particles may reach the alveoli, causing inflammation. Then chlamydia
penetrate into the cell, where they start the reproduction. Very quickly penetrate chlamydia
in the blood, causing symptoms of intoxication and the defeat of various organs -
liver, spleen, nervous system and adrenal glands. Intoxication due
toxic influence of the pathogen and toxin produced by them.
Less common is the gateway to infection of the digestive mucosa
tract - the small intestine. In this case, the pathogen also enters the bloodstream,
causing intoxication and affecting a number of organs and systems, but with no pneumonia
Immunity after acute infection short
and unstable, there may be cases of recurrent diseases.
The incubation period varies
from 6 to 17 days (usually 8-12 days). There are acute and chronic ornithosis.
In turn, a sharp psittacosis can occur in typical (pneumonia) form and
atypical (meningopnevmoniya, ornitozny meningitis, psittacosis without lung disease).
The rare atypical forms can be attributed ornitozny hepatitis ornitozny endocarditis.
The chronic form of the disease can occur as chronic
ornitoznoy pneumonia and a chronic ornithosis without lung disease.
Acute and chronic psittacosis
Acute psittacosis. A typical form of psittacosis begin
acute - among the overall health and well-being fast, chills, increased
body temperature (above 39 degrees). From the first hours of the disease appearing total
weakness, fatigue, severe headache, pain in the muscles of the back and limbs.
Appetite is reduced in almost all patients. In the early days of the disease is not seen
runny nose, nasal congestion, dryness and sore throat, redness of the throat and
as indicators of lung and pleura. The liver and spleen
in the early days has not increased.
Approximately 2-4 days of illness appear signs of defeat
Lung - cough, sometimes stabbing pain in the chest, worse when breathing,
then it begins to stand out a small amount of muco-purulent sputum, sometimes - with blood. Intoxication and fever kept at the same level or
At the end of the first week in most patients increased liver
and spleen, jaundice thus arises. Intoxication occurs 7-10 th
days of illness, and then begins to decrease gradually. To this disease
it is characteristic that even after normalization of body temperature, the patient's state of health
a long time is bad. Marked weakness, vegetative-vascular disorders,
rapid fatigue even with small physical exertion.
In severe and moderate forms of ornithosis full recovery
force comes only after 2-3 months. In some patients, the disease can
take a chronic course.
Atypical course of acute ornithosis may show meningeal
syndrome on the background of ornitoznoy pneumonia - meningopnevmoniya that combines
all the signs of pneumonic forms of ornithosis with a picture of serous meningitis. Disease
is prolonged fever persists up to 3-4 weeks, persistent changes
in the central nervous system is observed.
Ornitoznoy meningitis - one of the atypical forms of acute ornithosis occurs rarely.
It begins with acute fever and the appearance of symptoms of intoxication.
Over the next 2-4 days joined meningeal symptoms (severe
headache, stiff neck muscles, positive Kernig symptoms Brudzinskogo
and etc.). No changes in the lungs.
Psittacosis without lung disease begins acutely with increase in temperature
body (usually above 39 ° C) and the appearance of signs of intoxication. Patients complain
headache, loss of appetite, stool retention, sometimes bursting pain in
throughout the body. By the end of the first week is defined by an enlarged liver and spleen.
Moreover, acute psittacosis can occur without any clinical
manifestations - innaparantnaya form. This disease is more common in persons
young with good reactivity.
Chronic psittacosis. Chronic forms developed
after acute ornithosis, often with the wrong treatment. Chronic ornitoznoy pneumonia, accompanied by symptoms
bronchitis. The body temperature is not more than 38 degrees, while maintaining intoxication
(Weakness, fatigue). The disease may last for 3-5 years or more.
Chronic psittacosis can occur without destruction of the lungs.
Manifested as long fever not exceeding 38 degrees,
symptoms of chronic intoxication, vegetative-vascular disorders, increase
liver and spleen. It can last for years.
The most dangerous complication is
myocarditis (heart muscle inflammation), the development of acute heart failure,
thrombophlebitis (blood clots in the veins), followed by pulmonary embolism
artery hepatitis. When you join a secondary infection occurs purulent otitis
(Ear infection), neuritis.
In the event of the disease in pregnant women, intrauterine
infection does not occur, the development of malformations do not occur. severe
disease early in pregnancy can lead to spontaneous abortion.
Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of psittacosis
Recognition of the disease based on epidemiological
- Contact with domestic and wild birds (hunters), pet birds (especially
budgies and parrots), urban pigeons and clinical data.
For diagnosis it is important that patients with pulmonary forms of ornithosis
no signs of lesions of the upper respiratory tract (rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis
and tracheitis). Characteristic enlargement of the liver in most patients.
Methods of laboratory diagnostics: ELISA enzyme immunoassay method
- Identification of Chlamydia by the presence of specific antibodies in the blood, the most sensitive
method - for the specific identification of Chlamydia enzyme DNA molecule in a smear
(PCR, polymerase chain reaction).
Prescribe antibiotics tetracycline group:
Vibramitsin, Doxycycline, Tetracycline at 0.3-0.5 g four times a day to day 4-7
normal temperature, if necessary, treatment is continued until day 9-10
normal temperature. When neperenosimostmi drugs tetracycline group
You can assign Chloramphenicol and Erythromycin, but their effectiveness is somewhat smaller.
Penicillin, streptomycin and sulfanidamidy (Biseptolum) is not effective at psittacosis.
Fighting psittacosis in poultry,
regulation of the number of pigeons, limiting contact with them. On poultry farms
and enterprises engaged in the processing of feathers and down, it is necessary to carry out
sanitary and veterinary measures. When importing birds into the country should apply
quarantine measures. An effective vaccine for the prevention of psittacosis exists.