Methods of treatment of pulmonary embolism
Treatment of pulmonary thromboembolism comprisesmeasures aimed at maintaining an adequate blood circulation in the body, heparin therapy aimed at preventing coagulation of platelets increased, thrombolytic therapy to dissolve the clot, and if necessary, surgery.
Supporting activities include oxygen therapy, pain management, if necessary, artificial ventilation, and anti shock therapy.
Heparin is usually given immediatelyintravenously. Heparin is not capable of dissolving existing clots in the vessel, but it prevents the formation of new blood clots. Treatment with heparin as other conditions associated with thrombosis, commonly lasts a week, after which the heparin is gradually replaced by another class of anticoagulants (such as warfarin). these anticoagulant treatment can last up to 6 months.
Thrombolytic therapy is aimed atthe dissolution of a blood clot, sealing the lumen of the artery. Usually used drugs such as streptokinase, urokinase, and others. However, this method of treatment is absolutely contraindicated in patients who have recently suffered a stroke, in the presence of a bleeding ulcer of the stomach, that is, with concomitant diseases threatening bleeding.
Surgical treatment is surgeryembolectomy - removal of thrombus. This operation is performed only if the patient's condition is extremely severe. The method consists in the fact that using a special catheter inserted into the pulmonary artery, the blood clot breaks into smaller pieces and removed.
Prevention of pulmonary embolism
Prevention of thromboembolism isprevention of the risk factors. When transferred thromboembolism, the doctor will recommend taking anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) for 6 months. This is aimed at preventing recurrent venous thromboembolism. During treatment with warfarin periodically necessarily need to control blood clotting (parameters such as clotting time, prothrombin index, etc.). This is necessary to prevent the complications that occur in the treatment with anticoagulants. Strictly necessary to monitor the dosage of the drug received.
In some cases, such as in the presenceDVT feet, it is recommended to install in the lumen of the inferior vena cava special cava filter. This device is a mesh. Cava Filter is used for preventing blood clots and getting lower limbs in the pulmonary artery. Cava Filter can be installed temporarily until the underlying disease is cured and permanently.
As the prevention of thrombosis and theirconsequently, pulmonary embolism, patients with risk factors recommended elastic bandaging legs and wearing special elastic stockings. This procedure is certainly recommended to patients during prolonged heavy operations.