Sugar diabetes occurs when the pancreas for unknown science reasons ceases to produce the desired amount of insulin. This is the first-type diabetes - insulin-dependent. However, the second-type diabetes is more common - when insulin in the body is produced enough, but insulin activity is quite low. Low insulin activity determines a large amount of adipose tissue that has low insulin sensitivity. It is characteristic that the type 1 diabetes is more often ill people under 40 years old, and diabetes 2 types often amazes people over 50 years old.
Causes of diabetes
The reasons for the development of diabetes are also unknown for sure. It is clear only that if parents sick diabetes, the child will get sick almost certainly, hereditary predisposition plays a large role in diabetes disease.
The second factor causing diabetes is obesity. If you follow your weight, you can greatly reduce the risk of developing diabetes.
The third reason - pancreas diseases such as Pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and others.
In addition, our site would like to pay attention to that stress can also cause diabetes - unnecessary load on the nervous system can be a launching mechanism for diabetes. Viral infections most often cause diabetes development, although the virus itself does not play roles - the development of diabetes develops together, and the viral infection only launches the disease. Age is also a predisposition to diabetes - the older man, the higher the chance to get sick.
Of all the listed factors in each specific case, only one (obesity, heredity) causes the development of diabetes.
Symptoms of diabetes
For diabetes of both types, the following symptoms are characterized: the patient constantly feels thirst, drinks a lot, but due to frequent urination loses fluid and dehydrates. Constant feeling of hunger and simultaneous weight loss. The person constantly feels weakness, dizziness, numbness in the legs and arms, seizures of calf muscles. Begins with vision problems - the feeling of fog in front of the eyes. If diabetics gets seriously or hits, then recovery is much slower and more difficult. Well, the most basic diabetes symptom is a high blood sugar level.
Diagnosis of diabetes
After listening and inspected the patient (a person complains about thirst, weight loss, numbness of the limbs) The doctor prescribes two tests. One test will determine blood sugar levels, and the second is the level of sugar in the urine. If there is no diabetes, then the sugar is not determined in the urine, since kidney Hold glucose. But if the level of sugar is raised, the kidneys begin to pass glucose in the urine.
The blood sugar level is determined like this: the patient's blood test is taken on the hungry stomach. Normally, the level of sugar should not exceed 120 mg% (6.6 mmol / l). Then the patient is proposed to drink 300 ml of boiled water, in which 75 g of grape sugar was dissolved. After that, the blood sugar level is determined two more times - an hour after receiving grape sugar and another hour later. If the level of sugar is no emptyze not exceed 120 mg%, and two hours after taking sugar, the blood sugar level is below 140 mg% - it means the test is negative, and the patient has no diabetes. If an empty stomach in the blood of a patient is more than 120mg%, and after two hours, the sugar level exceeds 200 mg%, it means that a person is ill with diabetes.
Treatment of diabetes
Let me remind you that in diabetes 1 type of patient suffers from insufficient secretion of insulin. The only way to support insulin levels are injections of insulin. They are made subcutaneously, and any patient is able to make them independently. Injection insulin allows the patient to maintain a familiar lifestyle, however, for a stable satisfactory health status, insulin injections will have to do all life.
Insulins There are two types: short action (Aktrapid, Humulin R, Insun Rapid) and average duration of action (monotdard, Protafant, Humulin NPH, Insun Basal) Only a doctor can define an injection scheme and the volume of insulin insertion.
There are two main schemes of insulin therapy: short-acting insulin (for example, an actrapide) before lunch and insulin of prolonged action (for example, monotdard) in front of breakfast and before bedtime. The second scheme is distinguished by the fact that insulin of the average duration of the action is entered only before bedtime, and during the day the short-acting insulin injections are made.
Usually in the morning the patient introduces a 40% daily dose of a short action insulin, 30% of it before dinner and 30% before dinner. Daily dose of insulin equal to 0.6-1 units / kg. 25% of the daily dose accounts for a short-acting insulin and 75% - on insulin of the average duration of action.
Since insulin is injected under the skin, it slowly falls into the blood: it starts only after 15 minutes, and the maximum concentration in the blood is achieved 40-60 minutes after the injection. The main dosage for the treatment of diabetes is determined by the doctor, but after training, the patient can independently measure its sugar level and change the insulin dose, depending on the testimony of the glucometer.
Our site emphasizes that every patient diabetes must pass special training in order to properly control his blood sugar and be able to independently calculate the insulin dose depending on the sugar level. In this case, insulin therapy becomes an easy, and the patient gets the opportunity to live a more fulfillment: diversify diet and physical exertion.
Type 2 diabetes is much more common. For successful treatment, the patient is obliged not only to constantly control the level of sugar in the blood, but also stick to the diet and try to lose weight. Diet with type 2 diabetes lies in the constant consumption of low-calorie food rich in fiber. Implemented physical exertion: after all, during charging, working muscles consume strongly consume glucose, and this allows maintenance of the sugar level.
If the diet and physical exercises do not give the desired effect, it is necessary to begin drug treatment, which is to receive sugar drugs (glureranm). However, doctors have long been convinced that with time the patient with diabetes 2 type, insulin injections will still need. This is due to the fact that over the years the pancreas function weakens and insulin begins not enough.
To control the level of sugar diabetics will have to purchase a glucometer - a device that allows you to measure blood sugar at any time of the day. This is a small size of the device on which there is a display and a small lanceset. Pierced a finger and the analysis takes the whole drop of blood. The device not only shows the blood sugar level, but also remembers it. It is very convenient for patients who get the opportunity to show the results of the glucumber to their doctor. Glucometer cost - from 1500 to 2500 rubles.
Complications of diabetes
If the patient does not care about constantly maintaining a normal blood sugar level, complications of diabetes are gradually developed. Patients are beginning to disturb the tingling and numbness of the limbs, the puppiness stop and sensitivity. In the future, the defeat of peripheral vessels is developing, which can end with gangrene and limb amputation. Large vessels are also affected - heart attacks and stroke develop. If the patient has long been elevated blood sugar, diabetic coma. The essence of this phenomenon is that with a lack of insulin cells begin to experience a strong need for energy (little insulin - little glucose enters the blood, and glucose is energy). To give cells the energy The body is accepted to spend fat stocks. With a lack of insulin, this process always occurs too intensively, and a large number of non-solid fat cells falls directly into blood. Part of the fat cells passing through the liver, turns into so-called ketone bodies that are very toxic. This causes the development of coma.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to cure diabetes, however, if you constantly control yourself, you can live quite a full life.