Forms of the disease
Depending on the clinical characteristics, two forms of this pathological condition are distinguished:
- Acute renal failure - appears unpredictable, while sharply decreases the number of urine-derived from the body (oliguria) or the development of urine stops at all (Anuria). The state is sharp, but, nevertheless, reversible.
- Chronic renal failure - a consequence of chronic kidney diseases (glomerulonephritis, Pyelonephritis, amyloidosis and T.NS.). For the development of pathology, namely, for replacing kidney parenchyma with connecting cloth, not one year is required. As a result of this form of disease in the kidneys, deep irreversible changes begin.
Causes of acute form of the disease
- Violated renal hemodynamics.
- Strong poisoning (drugs, poison of a snake or insect, «Chemistry»).
- Infection of infectious disease (for example, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome).
- Acute glomerulonephritis and acute pyelonephritis.
- Violation of urinary outflow.
- Mechanical kidney injury, unique kidney removal.
Causes of chronic form of the disease
If the patient was not a competent assistance, the second stage of the OPON ends with a terminal period with a fatal outcome in most cases. His signs:
- In the patient dyspnea, cough, in which the foam wet pink shade is distinguished (due to pulmoned edema).
- Hemorrhage under the skin, bruises, internal bleeding.
- Drowsiness, clouded consciousness.
Chronic renal failure (CPN).
Symptoms of chronic disease appear when the structure of the kidneys undergo significant changes.
- The volume of urine changes (decreases or increases).
- At night, urine stands out more than the day.
- Face swelling in the morning.
- Total weakness and malaise.
If you immediately do not respond to these disturbing signs of CPN, the final stage of the disease occurs. Symptoms indicate uremia (blood saturation salts of uric acid) and the pathological change in the water and electrolyte balance:
- There are very large swelling throughout the body.
- Fluid accumulates in internal cavities.
- There is a shortness of breath and cough pointing to a heart asthma or pulmonary edema.
- The blood pressure increases.
- Violated vision.
- Anemia develops.
- Nausea appears, vomiting, ammonium smell from mouth.
- I have a stomachache.
- The mass of the body is reduced.
- Zudit skin, acquires a yellowish tint.
- Skin hemorrhages are observed.
- Menstruation disappears in women.
- Luling to consciousness to the state of the coma.
In the presence of such dangerous symptoms of the patient, it is necessary to translate into hemodialysis, otherwise a person will not survive.
Diagnosis of the disease
Detection and confirmation of renal failure, as a rule, does not cause any difficulties from doctors. The main indicator of pathology can be called a persistent increase in the concentration of nitrogen metabolites and potassium in the blood against the background of the decreasing urine volumes.
Laboratory diagnostics involves measuring the amount of urine isolated, the concentration of such substances such as creatinine, urea and blood serum electrolytes. The nature of the renal blood flow is determined by renal angiography.
Treatment of renal failure
Acute form of the disease.
Significant improvement in the work of the kidneys is achieved by complex therapy. First of all, a special diet is prescribed, the water-salt and acid-alkaline balance is adjusted, the blood pressure is normalized, the anemia and heart failure are eliminated.
The main goal of the traditional treatment of acute renal failure is the neutralization of the cause, which has become the starting point for the development of pathology. Under resuscitation, measures should be immediately taken to eliminate shock, Dehydration, hemolysis, poisoning and t. D.
One of the most effective ways to treat sudden and complete cessation of kidney work today is hemodialysis, or elecorporal blood purification. The device with which the procedure is carried out is known as an artificial kidney. The number of procedures and their duration depends on the degree of neglence of the disease, on average session lasts more than 3 hours. With all the effectiveness of hemodialysis, the patient's stable state can be achieved only for a short period. For permanent well-being of a patient procedure, it is necessary to conduct systematically.
Digestons, infusion therapy, antibacterial drugs are used from medications. If necessary, the transfusion of blood substitutes or blood components is prescribed, in the case of severe anemia, the transfusion of the erythrocyte mass is made.
Chronic form of the disease.
The following activities are relevant in the treatment of chronic renal failure:
- Prescribe a therapeutic diet with a small percentage ratio of proteins and salts, which helps reduce the level of toxic substances (ammonia, urea) and prevents salting and liquid accumulation in the body.
- Patients who preserved diuresis discharge furosemide for the operational removal of fluid and toxins from the body. In parallel, the sodium solution of chloride and sodium hydrocarbonate is introduced so that there is no dehydration.
- The electrolytic balance is restored as follows: hypokalemia is treated with potassium preparations, Veroshpiron, and hypercalemia - diuretics, insulin and glucose.
- The combination of angiotensin II diuretics and blockers (Captopril, Enalapril) is used to normalize increased blood pressure.
- To avoid the development of osteodistrophy, prescribe drugs vitamin D3.
- With the complete loss of the patient's kidney performance, hemodialy is maintained.
- Transplanting donor kidney - not allowed, but the most effective treatment method for today.
Prevention of renal failure
Mircles draws attention to their readers: to prevent the development of this dangerous pathology, it is necessary first of all to eliminate the reasons that provoke her appearance. For example, significantly reduces the risk of acute and chronic kidney insufficiency Competent and operational treatment of pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis, urolithiasis.