Pathogenesis, the primary mechanism of interactionpenetrating radiation with the human body, it has not been studied. One thing is clear - it is based on a violation of the functions of all organs and systems, but crucial given to damage to the central nervous system and hematopoiesis, gastrointestinal tract, suppression of natural regeneration of tissue and radiation toxemia.
In the pathogenesis of radiation sickness plays a leading rolethe death of cells that make up the bone marrow, gut and skin. There are significant changes in the higher autonomic centers of the brain, endocrine disorders. Main role in the pathogenesis of acute radiation sickness is a violation of the interaction between the central and peripheral nervous system. These processes represent the pathogenetic links of the disease and appear as follows:
- metabolic disease;
- suppression of hematopoiesis function;
- inhibition of the gastrointestinal tract;
- trophic skin changes.
The close connection of these units shows deep damages, developing on the background of the primary interaction of penetrating rays from a living organism:
- Radiation toxemia - the clearest sign of the disease in the initial period of one of the degrees of symptoms of radiation sickness;
- cytostatic effect - is the basis for the emergence agranulotsitarnoy, hemorrhagic and anemic syndromes;
- Radiation capillaritis - occurs when the dose more than 7 Gy;
- violation of neurohumoral regulation;
- hardening - replacement of the main body of the connective tissue;
Formation of the disease occurs in the contact between the source of radiation or in the next few hours after the suspension of its operation. The nature of radiation during radiation sickness is:
- single massive;
- repeated small doses;
- local or total.
Depending on the radiation dose radiation disease has different degrees of severity:
- light (1-2 Gy);
- Moderate (2-4 Gy);
- heavy (4-6 Gy);
- very heavy (more than 6 Gy).
The recovery period of radiation sickness is 2-4 years after cessation of exposure, and the long-term effects can occur such as:
- changes in the genital area;
- immune disease;
- sclerotic processes;
- teratogenic effects;
- reduced life expectancy.
In addition, radiation sickness usually has two types of complications:
- somatic - a disease in themselves exposed;
- Genetic - hereditary pathology of posterity.
According to the classification isolatedmedullary, intestinal, toksemicheskuyu, neuro-cerebral and transitional forms of radiation sickness, presentation or manifestations that occur after the radiation dose, respectively:
- 1-10 Gy;
- 10-50 Gy;
- 50-100 Gy;
- more than 100 Gy.
Periods of radiation sickness have a certain consistency in the development of:
- imaginary well-being;
Currently, it is a rare disease thatIt occurs mainly in emergency situations at nuclear power plants during the emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere, on nuclear submarines and some objects of strategic purpose. Radiation protection includes collective and individual means of protection, strict adherence to the rules of conduct in the territory of the infected area, the protection of food and water from contamination with radioactive elements, radiation monitoring and determining the level of contamination of the area.
Neglect of safety regulationshuman interaction, its scientific and technical achievements to the nature and habitat leads to the formation of a variety of risks and the possibility of damage to their health. The occurrence of any emergency or man-made disaster caused by a combination of objective and subjective factors, paves the way radiation sickness as unpredictable presentation dire consequences for the health and social conditions of human existence on Earth.