Concept «autism» It was first introduced by. Blair in 1920 g. As a symptom with severe interaction violations with reality in adult schizophrenia patients. Early Children's autism was described by Leo Kanner (1943., Kanner syndrome), and then Hans Asperger (1949.).
Then one of the definitions of autism sounded like «Disconnection of a person with an outside world». This disease is striking not only mental functions (speech, intellect, thinking), but also reflects on perception by a child of a holistic picture of the world. The main problem of autism lies in the misunderstanding, inexplication by a person of events occurring around.
It has been proven that most of the cases of autism are hereditaryly due, however, the exact mechanisms of inheritance to the present are unknown. The only thing that can be argued is most likely not the autism itself, but the predisposition to it.
They will be implemented or not - largely depends on the external circumstances, which, rather, are not the cause, but the conditions for the development of autism. Often the appearance of signs of autism is preceded by generic injuries and other disorders of pregnancy and childbirth, as well as various factors operating after birth.
In recent years, autism has paid special attention. This is due to the fact that, according to a number of studies, the number of people, patients with autistic, becomes growing every year. However, it is unclear whether it is connected with some external factors or simply occurs the expansion of the boundaries of the concept «Auticity».
Children with autism, starting from the first months of life, differ in some features of development. First of all, such a child avoids all types of interaction with adults: he is not pressed to the mother, when she takes him on his hands, does not stretch his arms and does not stretch to her, as a healthy baby does, avoids a straight look into the eyes.
He often prevails peripheral vision (looks to the edge of the eyes); He may also not respond to sounds, in his name, which often makesone suspect of these children a hearing impairment, which in fact do not.
A characteristic feature of mental development during autism is inconsistency, the ambiguity of its manifestations. A autistic child can be highly intelligent and mentally retarded, can be gifted in some kind of music (music, mathematics), but not to have the simplest household and social skills. The same child in different situations may be clumsy, and can demonstrate an amazing dexterity.
The mental coefficient of autistic children often exceeds 70 points on the rolling scale. Such children show the abilities - sometimes simply brilliant - to drawing, music, constructing. They are called «Ostrovka Knowledge», and those who have them call «Scientists of the autists». At the same time, the rest of the spheres of life are not affected at all and do not interest the child.
An autistic child is extremely connected by its own extinguishing stereotypes. All his inside the world will be clamped into a tight framework, the exchange for which the tragedy is. This is primarily due to the so-called neophobia - the fear of all new.
However, phobias in such children can develop anything. In particular, autistic children suffer from a sensory phobia - they may be afraid of household electrical appliances, emitting sharp sounds, water noise, darkness or bright light, closed doors, high-colors and t.D.
When an autistic child is especially bad, he can show aggression and self-education. The explosion of despair of destructive power is usually against the intervention in his life and attempts to change the established stereotypes. Selectivity in contacts and the lack of visible attachment even to close people stems from a whole system of fears, and as a result - prohibitions and self-restraints.
This is inflexible, «Making», «Mechanism», «Ploggy». Often gives the impression of stamping. One of the bright characteristics of the speech of an autistic child - echolalization, repetition - often delayed - heard somewhere phrases outlined with a real situation.
Trouble of families with an autistic child primarily that the awareness of the problem often comes suddenly. The difficulties of establishing contact, the interaction is balanced in the eyes of parents with soothing impressions, which cause a serious, smart look of the child, its special abilities.
Therefore, at the time of the diagnosis, the family is sometimes experiencing the hardest stress: in three, four, sometimes even five years old parents report that their child who has been considered healthy and gifted, in fact «Nevel». Often they immediately offer to arrange disability or place it in a special boarding school. Stress state for a family that continues «fight» for his child, from now on, often becomes chronic.
The greatest problems fall into the share of a autistic child's mother, because from his very birth, it does not receive positive emotions, the immediate joy of communication, with the prosperity of all the tightness and fatigue associated with daily concerns and anxieties.
The child does not smile at her, does not look into the eyes, does not like to be in his arms; Sometimes he does not even highlight it from other people, does not give any visible preference in contact. It is reasonable so manifestations of depressiveness, irritability, emotional exhaustion.
Fathers tend to avoid daily stress associated with the upbringing of an autistic child, spending more time at work. Nevertheless, they are also experiencing feelings of guilt, disappointment, although they do not talk about it so clearly like mothers.
It is characteristic that the need for communication in autistic children is not initially broken. Such a child can be deeply tied to a close person, and the human face is as significant for him, as for any other, only the eye contact can only be withstanding very long. Thus, an autistic child can rather than not want to contact with the surrounding people.
In addition, the fathers are concerned about the severity of stress, which is experiencing their wives, they fall on their special material importance on ensuring «hard» a child who is still sharper due to the fact that they promise to be long-term, actually life.
In a special situation, brothers and sisters of such children are growing: in psychological and living on, they also experience certain difficulties, and parents are often forced to sacrifice them in such a situation.
If you notice the above signs in the behavior of your child, consult your child psychiatrist. Than at an earlier age you will begin the correction of the autistic child's development, the more chances to adapt it to normal life.
When diagnosing autism, the main criterion is that this disease never develops in healthy rebeck after 5 years. Thus, if the listed deviations are found in a more mature age, you should first consider schizophrenia, and not about autism.
In addition, some symptoms of autism are similar to manifestations of mental retardation, violations of speech, congenital deafness and regressive psychosis. Therefore, only an experienced specialist can determine whether your child really suffers autism.
Conventional therapy assumes both the appropriate diet and the use of sedatives and other drugs to improve the overall condition of the child. In addition, now there is a mass of techniques and developments aimed at treating or correction of autism. For example, communication therapy helps to develop independence, independence, independence and skills of social adaptation. It is also important to contribute to the development of communication skills through the language of gestures and other different methods (non-verbal communication).
Audio-vocal training and audio-training are aimed at the subsequent adaptation of the child-anutist as well as the therapy of the conflict, the main method of which is a violent embrace «Forceal Holding», or Holding therapy. This method is also called «Forced support» and was first proposed by m. Welch in 1983.
It consists in an attempt to forced, almost violent education of physical connections between mother and child, since it is precisely the absence of this connection that is often considered the main impairment during autism. In addition, constant classes of specialized medical physical education are needed, in order for the child to learn how to own his body.
Parents need to understand what is happening with their child, and, if possible, establish emotional contact with him, feel their strength, learn to influence the situation by changing it for the better. In addition, families with autistic children are useful to communicate with each other. They not only well understand each other, but each of them has its own unique experience of experiencing crises, overcoming difficulties and achieving success, mastering specific techniques to solve numerous household problems.