Currently, the diagnosis "frequently illChild "familiar, unfortunately, many mothers. We are faced with this problem most frequently when you receive the baby to kindergarten or nursery. Vrach pediatrician at each visit and consistently puts SARS sends all be treated the same means that a month ago. The result - long cold"Incomprehensible" cough that lasts longtime, allergies to medicines, hospital forever ... chronic diseases which list is endless. Therefore so sharply and there is a problem of the absolute ignorance of the parents about the general state of health of their child, as well as on ways to protect the body of a baby in the future. I draw the attention of readers our website, that this material is made exclusively with the advisory purposes is a reference template of children who do not have chronic pathology.
What you need to remember all parents
So often and long ill considereda child who, having chronic diseases and birth of a healthy, one year time to get sick more than 4 times. This definition does not explicitly referring to age criteria, but most of the concepts are united into one.
But often ill child - not a sentence. It's just an exclamation point, both you and your doctor. Therefore, such a child needs both proper and timely treatment, and the prevention of complications and new diseases.
Why are an increasing number of often ill children?
Here the mass of options, consider the most important of them.
1. Failure immunity. Few mothers reflects the truethe reason why her kid up to 1.5 years never bolevshy, suddenly begins to cough constantly, runny nose does not pass all year round, and here and preventive vaccination to be done.
Most parents rightly believe thatmanger is "acquaintance" of their child with a variety of viruses, bacteria and other agents. And, of course, the immune system, recognizing them fails. That's true, but partially. And the fact that our children enter the nursery in the "second critical period immunogenesis".
At this time (from the year up to 2 years) occursgradual change of passive (received from mothers milk) immunity only begins to develop active (your own, unique) immunity.
But the problem is that the activeimmunity only begins its formation, and getting in extreme conditions (superinfection in kindergartens), does not own forces to fight. There is a failure. The child begins to continuously hurt ...
2. The next and equally important reason is Environment. Scientific evidence shows that the most frequent,long, complicated by respiratory infections (ARI, ARI, RS-infection, etc.) have been reported in children living in areas close to railways, factories for the assembly of metal structures. For comparison, goiter and other thyroid diseases are more common in children and people with the impact of oil refineries, factories for the paint industry. Group cases of intestinal infections are more common in children living near the water intake stations and on the banks of navigable rivers.
3. Psychological and social climate in the family. The important role played by the baby vaccinated beforeentering the nursery hygiene skills. If the hands are washed at home once a day, do not expect cleanliness and a baby in the future. Parents are role models, so it is important in the presence of a baby (or absence) give him a good example.
4. Wide, just a huge range of medicines, Homeopathic remedies, and justfunds that promise instant healing. Of course, my mother is not difficult to understand: you want to your baby quickly recovered, I want to go to work. But it is important to perceive the resulting advertising information, to analyze and evaluate.
Quite often, my mother asks at the reception: "Doctor, tell me, I bought the drug N ***, he says expensive because absolutely wonderful ... But the thing we are allergic, and like him ... What should I do?" This raises a fair question: "Mom, you, when he bought, came to consult or at least a phone call? NO. And now, by giving the child a little-known and highly controversial drug, you offer me to deal with the oversight of your ... "
The situation is commonplace, but they are not less rareoccurring. Unfortunately. So, parents, "lumped" information around (and people willing to talk about the "most wonderful healing" a huge amount - grandmothers, friends, friends, neighbors, colleagues, acquaintances, even in casual conversation transport), begin to throw at all. And the result of such self-medication is usually abysmal. Or the mother who has a child with SARS banal he recovered on the 7th day, believes that helped these granules / candles / powders / ointments / broths / whispering at the water ...
Hence, our task is not only the fact of prevention of disease of our children, but also prevention among parents that all is not well, helping a neighbor.
5. Then, perhaps, the last most significant aspect of the disease in children - behavior rules. "And what is it, eighteen months, it is possible to instill?" - You ask. And it is possible, and quite a large range of skills in the form of role-playing games.
I offer our site readers such an option. It is necessary to clearly separate the nature of the actions and their assessment, for this we take the red, yellow and green cards (circles, balls, dolls).
Group 1 action (red card) - these areactions that can not be done under any circumstances, circumstances, and never. Here we refer to the beginning: toys can not take by mouth; pacifier from the floor in the mouth does not pop, not to swallow the earth, sand.
2nd (yellow card) - what to do if you cancertain conditions (and, accordingly, can not be done in the absence of conditions). For example, you need to turn away when coughing on you; after walking in a group can be accessed only if the vents and windows closed.
3rd - what can be done (green card). The third - to hold hands for a walk ...
If the kid engaged in systematic, very soon it will not only itself starts to perform some simple exercises to protect your health, but also to correct the other begins.
Thus, summing up some results, should beIt noted that "putting all the blame" for the rise in the number of weakened children on any particular factor is not possible. But at the same time, it should promptly identify, treat and prevent the development of severe complications in frequently ill children (FIC).
The main groups of drugs used in FIC
Since it turned out that the baby lies with temperature, it is necessary to choose the most correct, rational and harmless treatment.
When you are visiting because the diseaselocal pediatrician, do not be afraid to ask questions, try to tell as much as possible about how, where, when and why your child is ill. This will facilitate the task of the doctor, and will be relevant to you as a normal mother, worried about the condition of their child.
The difference in treatment often chronically ill andnormal children at first sight is not essential. And the fact is that not only often ill baby needs a gentle and timely treatment. Therefore briefly we equate these concepts and examine it in the general treatment of children as a particular social niche.
1. First, but unfortunately it is not always doable task is the correct diagnosis. "Why?" - You ask. The difference is small. SARS, acute respiratory infections, acute respiratory infections, flu. Treat still the same. This can be heard very often.
The difference is that the child's bodyIt responds differently to viruses and bacteria. Therefore, it is important CBC. Nobody, of course, does not suggest you to go with a sick baby to the clinic, to stand in line at the lab ... now fairly well-developed network of so-called "analysis at home." Price - as much as you take on, in the future will be, unnecessary medication at the pharmacy. A big plus - once by nearly 70% the diagnosis is known. Hence, we choose the right treatment.
2. Let us assume that all the same blood test for some reason we could not pass. No problem, we will use obviously effective range of products.
Many parents know that raising the temperaturedue to the fact that the body in the initial stages of the disease he is trying to fight infection. The degree of temperature rise depends on the amount and toxicity of the pathogen. At this point the body needs only in maintaining the immune system and its own forces. After that, it is already trained to better cope with viruses and bacteria, even without resorting to an increase in temperature. Therefore, it is important to give him to "win a foreign agent." But the negative side - this is the body's inability to stop in time. And the temperature starts to rise.
I'll start, perhaps, with antipyretics. Every mother should know and understand that not every increase in temperature can and should be eliminated. Often ill children are no exception.
Do not immediately grasp at the drugdrugs. Your desire to help the kid torments understandable and justified. But we should not forget that medicine - this is the last method. So first we use physical cooling methods (wiping with a damp cloth, raskutyvaniya ...).
Also it is necessary to distinguish between types of fevers - white typeand red. Quite simply, the name speaks for itself. So when white type of fever your child pale, the skin is dry, scaly, it is often asked to drink and does not peel off with it. And do not drive !! Let it draws you in energy and protection. Hands and feet are dry to the touch, cold. It should be warm. But, of course, do not put it in the hot tub, and simply wrapped in a warm blanket. And be on the lookout, because it's not a very good sign.
If the toddler relatively cheerful, red cheeks, arms and legs "pyshat heat" - raskutayte it, wipe with a damp gauze.
The use of fever-reducing drugs in children is notat risk, start only at higher body temperature over 38.5 degrees. Lowering the temperature to 38 degrees and above begin in children at risk.
What is the meaning of "at risk"? This group of children, who due to their health status and the presence of certain factors can be layered (add) or realized any disease. For example, all children born by Caesarean section are automatically entered in the risk for diseases of the central nervous system. Here are the most frequent pathologies in which children are at risk is:
- score at birth Apgar score less than 7;
- Premature babies, especially born with extremely low birth weight (less than 1500g);
- the presence of older brothers or sisters, seizures, epilepsy and other brain lesions;
- mother transferred measles or rubella during pregnancy;
- the presence of maternal prolonged hypertension which worsened during pregnancy (preeclampsia of pregnancy);
- Epilepsy as a confirmed diagnosis earlier in the kid;
- convulsions, appeared in a rise in temperature during the last illness.
In all these states the use of fever-reducing drugs is already necessary.
So, I will give examples of the most well-studied drugs, well-proven and related drugs evidence-based medicine, ie, repeatedly tested and proven.
Ibufen (ibuprofen, Nurofen) and OCI (ketotifen, ketoprofen) Today is the most widely used drugs. They can be used for the longest time. Akin to drug him Nise, Also belonging to the group of NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).
The value of these drugs: antipyretic, light sedation (calming) and anti-inflammatory effects.
How to take: ibufena 5-10 mg per 1 kg of weight of the child at a time (i.e., if a child weighs 10 kg, then we will give 50-100 mg) up to 4 times a day. Per day may use not more than 30 mg per 1 kg.
3. Antiviral drugs. So, our main "enemy and ally" in the face of increasing temperature crashed and now you need to think about what a treat to not "heal"?
Many parents know that raising the temperaturedue to the fact that the body in the initial stages of the disease he is trying to fight infection. The degree of temperature rise depends on the amount and toxicity of the pathogen. At this point the body needs only in maintaining the immune system and its own forces. Then, the trained already, it will be easier to cope with viruses and bacteria, even without resorting to an increase in temperature. Therefore, it is important to give him to "win a foreign agent." But the negative side - this is the body's inability to stop in time. And the temperature starts to rise.
You have to go back to the importance of the tests. Yes, according to the obtained results of blood tests you can think about how to appoint or not to appoint antivirals. What for? Then, the virus - an insidious thing. And you need to work on it. Among the most commonly used antiviral drugs is Arbidol. Perhaps sometime in the beginning, he hadstrong activity. Or viruses were slightly different structure. Its advantage - the ability to use in children from 2 years. But now, pediatricians reject it. At this stage of the fight against viral diseases drug gets good reviews Rimantadine (Alguire, flumadin)Having effect against influenza and SARS unknown etiology.
How to take: prevention for adults - 50 mg 1 time a day every day for 10-15 days; treatment of children 7-10 years of age - 50 mg 2 times a day, 11-14 - 50 mg three times a day. The course of 5 days. But there are contraindications: children up to 7 years, acute liver and kidney disease, hyperthyroidism.
Other drugs having antiviral activity and is used in the treatment of SARS is Tamiflu (oseltamivir).
How to take: for 5 days on the diagram below.
|Body weight less than 15 kg||30 mg 2 times a day|
|body weight 15-23 kg||45 mg 2 times a day|
|body weight 23-40 kg||60 mg 2 times a day|
|Body weight more than 40 kg||75 mg 2 times a day|
Next we will pass by the main groups of drugs, which are currently the most commonly used in young children (under 3 years) and often and long ill children.
4. Interferons. With typical and uncomplicated ARI should be used rarely. However, having a baby with reduced immune defenses, we can assign Vellferon or viferon.
Vellferon - it lymphoblastic natural interferon. Its only drawback - intramuscular administration.
How to use: 3 million IU 1 time per day, 7 days through 14, intramuscularly.
Viferon is a variant of recombinantinterferon and has great mass distribution. Available in 3 versions: up to 7 years, for children 7-14 years and adults. But also has a very convenient form of release - rectal suppositories (in practice, there are parents who completely refuse from such method of administration) that in some way has the power, because any intervention in the rectum leads to irritation.
How to apply: children up to 7 years - 1 prevention Candle (150000 IU) every other day for 2 weeks, the treatment of 1 Candle (150000 IU) every day for 2 weeks. Children up to 14 years - the same pattern, but the candles take 500 thousand IU..
Dear reader, our website, drugsinterferon series are not way out, a panacea, do not expect your baby stop hurting, if you will constantly use such drugs. Interferons - choice of drugs under such severe diseases as cytomegalovirus infection, generalized herpes and others. ... It's just a way to help the body of the child. Consequently, they must be used as intended in the strict dosages.
5. antibiotic therapy. "Urgent" issue, like many parents,and doctors. Draw schematic side: antimicrobial drugs act on microbes, bacteria. But not viruses. Hence, their appointment should be strictly argued:
- children with the presence of bacterial complications (chronic bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia);
- children with chronic foci of infection (tonsillitis, sinusitis, urinary tract infection);
- with suspected Mycoplasma or Chlamydia infection;
- in severe forms of disease in infants and sickly children because of the inability to exclude the participation in the process of bacterial flora.
Thus, as mentioned earlier voiced, Analysisblood we may well decide initially whether to think about taking antibiotics. But, as practice shows, in most cases, often ill children have mixed infections with intoxication. Those. joins to virus and bacterial flora, prescribed antibiotics, we do not miss. After the correct use of antibiotics should be observed improvement in moderate form of the next day (the temperature significantly reduced, a child may eat, and by the end of the day, and all will be cheerful and full of energy).
IMPORTANT: Parents often try to appoint antibiotics perceived "hostility" ... And they are right, partly. Many people believe that antibiotics - evil, and they should be used in extreme situations. Yes, they "kill" as pathogens, as well as their own, very necessary. But believe me, it is easier to re "settle" a good microflora than the treatment of sepsis or other equally serious complications. If the baby in the background of the disease worsen even tonsillitis, will begin to multiply aureus, in its imperfect system will fail, and the result can be any disease, from rheumatism and ending with myocarditis.
So, we use the most often protected penicillins (Amoxiclav, Augmentin) and Flemoksin Soljutab (Amoxicillin), Gentamicin and Sumamed (azithromycin).
Amoxiclav (Augmentin) - Used to treat infections of the upper respiratory tract, lungs and urinary tract.
How to use: up to 1 year - drops of 1 ml 3 times a day; up to 12 years - a syrup or suspension of 10 ml (0.156 g / 5 ml) or a suspension of forte 5 ml (0.312 g / 5 ml) 3 times a day.
Flemoksin Soljutab (Amoxicillin, Ospamoks) It is the most commonly used antimicrobialdrug because of its effectiveness against a broad range of pathogens. Ease of application lies in the fact that very young children or immunocompromised tablet can be crushed in a teaspoonful and diluted with a little water. It has a slightly sweet taste.
How to apply: children up to 2 years 20 mg / kg per day for 3 admission; Children from 2 to 5 years to 0,125 g 3 times a day; 5-10 years of 0.25 g of 3 times per day; senior (weighing more than 40 kg) appoint 0.5 g 3 times a day.
1. The longest symptom colds all babies - is constantly stuffy nose, From which the discharge may be of different colors.
In this regard it is important to realize that the presence of"Green snot" and expectoration, especially in the morning purulent green "caps" - a rather bad sign, which certainly should be treated. In most cases provoke nasal congestion two aspects. Firstly, this nasal mucosal edema. In 50% of cases it is allergic. Secondly, this proliferation of adenoid tissue, which just covers the airways and the baby there is nothing as soon as to breathe through the mouth. In this case it is important to "start" the process and does not contribute to its chronicity.
"Green" snot speak often of mixed viral and bacterial infections.
So, before choosing a treatment drops, it is necessarydetermine the basis. For what? In order to maximize the release and expand airways. For this purpose, can be used as special formulations (Aqua Maris)And normal saline, bought at the pharmacy.
Many parents of friends and comrades advised"Through" washing of facial sinuses. This action must be said categorically NO. And this is due primarily to the failure of most of the sinuses in children. That in turn can lead to sinusitis, and sinusitis.
Enough to drip 2 drops of solution in eachnostril, while the baby's head should not be to throw back strongly, otherwise the entire solution goes into the throat with the bacteria. Wait a few minutes (you can let your baby play) and then give him a good blow his nose. You can tickle feather, then the very defensive reaction will do the trick ...
Now you can drop drip treatment. Here are the most well-proven themselves: Nizivin (S age gradation) or Fasini, and Rinofluimutsil. Otrivin (xylene, olint). pinosol. Most of the drugs mechanism of action is similar. Rinofluimutsil improves secretion of normal villi airway epithelium, Pinosol softens mucosa, has a good healing effect.
It is necessary to carry even creams and ointments againststreptoderma inevitably occurring with a cold. This erosive red spots around the nose. Their appearance is due to the fact that grated, irritated skin penetrate microorganisms with secretions from the nose. It will help local application of ointment Levomekol. levomitsetinovaya ointment. Rescue cream.
2. The second group of symptomatic therapy should be called different agents used in pharyngalgias, Sore, inflammation of the oral mucous membranes.
Let me remind readers of our site, that early childchildren (under 3 years), the use of different sprays contraindication is unofficial, because can cause allergic or thermal spasm of the larynx and angioedema.
Therefore, we give the kids so different teas and infusions (quite suitable decoction of chamomile flowers, Series). Older children can be assigned Ingalipt. Tantum Verde. kameton. Geksoral... And apply standard: 1-2 injection up to 5 times a day, then do not drink within 15 minutes).
It is also possible to use tablet formulations such as Faringosept (1 tablet to dissolve in the mouth four times a day), Strepsils. Falimint.
3. The third broad group of drugs used to treat the symptoms of SARS, acute respiratory infections are expectorants (bronchodilators and mucolytics). These include drugs of plant origin and synthetic.
Vegetable: nursing fees Bronhikum, marshmallow root, Mukaltin, licorice root, gedeliks etc.
In the application of this group of drugs is importantconsider that weak and sickly children often have atopic dermatitis or polisensibilizatsiyu. Therefore the use of them is limited strictly herbal preparations. In addition, also take into account the fact that the treatment of such funds for longer, facilitating the action and the result can be seen far right.
Synthetic: Acetylcysteine (NAC). Fluditek (karbotsistein). Ambrobene. This group of drugs has a good expectorant, regulates mucociliary clearance, inhibits the action of inflammatory mediators (which is important in children with allergic reactions).
4. The group of drugs, which is of great importance in frequently ill and debilitated children. it antihistamines. There are 3 generations of this group, but the practical importance are the first two for us.
The first group - Suprastin. tavegil. Diphenhydramine. Significant for them - it's ability to penetratethe blood-brain barrier and thus cause a mild sedative, hypnotic effect. This is important in children with atopic dermatitis, itchy skin. Take them by the schemes.
The second group - Claritin. fenistil. Terfenadine. These drugs do not cause side effects in the idea of sleepiness.
The third group - Telfast and Zyrtec.
Thus, the main group of symptomatic drugsconsidered, except for the specific treatment needed by children with congenital stridor (noisy breathing through the nose), chronic allergies and respiratory diseases.
Treatment often and long ill childrenperiods of exacerbation, of course, is a very important task. But no less important is the recovery process, its planning and direction of extension of remission.
The basis of this treatment is medical protective regime, diet, physiotherapy, massage and physiotherapy.
- Therapeutic and protective regime. This implies the exclusion of activities and games,leading to fatigue and overstimulation of the child, as well as maximum limitation of stressful situations. The duration of sleep is increased by 1 hour add the obligatory naps or rest, in a ventilated room.
- Rational dietWhich is not aimed at reducing the weight of the baby, but on the contrary, should be a full, balanced on basic food ingredients. Every day, fruits, vegetables, berries.
- Specially designed complex medical and health physical education. This morning exercise, fresh air. Physical education provides good drainage function of bronchi, increase the body's resistance.
- Massage - Overall, classical massage the chest with elements of stroking, rubbing, kneading and vibration. Courses are held every 14 days 2-4 times a year.
- Hardening - Holding in remission with a gradual increase in intensity, systematically and consistently, using the continuity, contrast.
- PhysiotherapyAimed at the reorganization of foci of chronic infection in remission. Use with aerotherapy climatotherapy, heliotherapy, balneotherapy.