The causative agent of the disease is shortfixed rod with rounded ends. The microorganism is very sensitive to external influences, so bakposev performed immediately after collection of the material. Bordetella (pathogen) eliminates UV radiation and easy drying. The bacterium is susceptible to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline drugs, streptomycin.
The mechanism of action of infection
The most commonly affects children with pertussis and earlypreschool. You might as well stick-pathogen and gets into the body of an adult, but in this case the detection of the disease is complicated by the lack of typical whooping cough spasmodic cough.
Whooping cough - only anthroponotic infection. This means that a person can only be a source and a carrier of the disease. The most dangerous for healthy people feel sick with the initial form of pertussis. After contact with sick infected are 85-95% of population.
Bordetella multiplies in the ciliated epitheliumrespiratory tract, but does not fall into the bloodstream. Vital functions of bacteria inhibits the activity of cilia of ciliated epithelium, causing inflammation of the mucous membrane and increased production of mucous secretion. The result of the inflammatory response becomes a violation of the integrity of the airway epithelium and its subsequent necrosis. Most pertussis detrimental effect on the state of small bronchi and bronchioles that clogged deformed cells and mucus with a traffic jam.
Toxins pertussis bacillus not only regularlyirritate the respiratory tract, but also have a strong impact on the central nervous system. A major role in the formation of spasmodic cough perform allergic mechanisms. Persistent focus of excitation in the central nervous system are explained by coughing in response to a variety of stimuli, as well as non-respiratory muscle spasms (young children can suffer from convulsions).
Earlier recover from pertussis person can become infected by a patient again.
Symptoms of pertussis
Held in catarrhal (initial) periodpertussis, based on epidemiological information (contact with a carrier of the disease, lack of vaccination). These data - an occasion for bacteriological analysis. Positive study results give the doctor the right to consider the diagnosis of pertussis valid.
Treatment of the disease
The treatment of whooping cough in children can be practiced at home. An exception is children under the age of one year and patients with severe pertussis - they are hospitalized.
If time to start antibiotic therapy -it is at an early stage of the disease - it is possible to avoid the development of debilitating cough. However, at a time when the typical bouts of whooping cough is already gaining momentum, antimicrobials do not have a positive effect on the course and clinical picture of the disease. In this regard, in mild and moderate forms of the disease antibioticsAs a rule, not in a hurry to appoint. Treatment with antibiotics is inevitable, if pertussis is complicated by secondary infections.
The causative agent of whooping cough responds to such groupsantibiotics like macrolides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol. Mostly used erythromycin and azithromycin, as drugs, of which the active substance is toxic chloramphenicol and tetracycline number of drugs not indicated for children under 8 years old. If the background of the underlying disease is present secondary microflora, are commonly used antimicrobials penicillin and streptomycin.
In order to weaken and eventually stop fordisease the patient may recommend allergy medications (tavegil, suprastin, pipolfen), preparations containing calcium, in complicated cases - short courses of corticosteroids (prednisone). To relieve cough attacks as well as to reduce the number of prescribed antipsychotics (chlorpromazine, propazine). To make a thick phlegm less viscous, turning for help to the inhalation and chymotrypsin himopsina.
It is of great importance in the fight against pertussis hasmode, free access of fresh air into the room, where there is a sick person. We must try to avoid the causes that are potential basis for an attack (for example, to eliminate negative emotional stimuli).
When pertussis begins to recede, become topical physiotherapy, vitamins and biogenic stimulators.
Prevention of pertussis
The main precautionary measures with respect todiseases are to vaccination. Specific immunoprophylaxis is a DTP vaccine - carry it all without a history of whooping cough in children aged 3 months to 3 years. The event is either completely protects the child from the risk of ill (about 80% of children), or a small patient easily tolerated its shape.
Memo from our website: what parents need to know
- The cough can cause the slightest physical effort,chewing, swallowing, sneezing, negative emotions. Positive attitude of the child, on the contrary, is the main key to a quick recovery. Try to avoid outdoor games with your child.
- Try as much as possible to protect diseased child from dust, indoor remove only when there is no child.
- Meals offer frequent small meals. Food should be easy for chewing. Chewing gum is strictly prohibited.
- Warm and dry air in the nursery -a guarantee that the child will be sick for a long time, because such conditions only thickened mucus, which clogged his airway, increasing the number of attacks of coughing and increase the risk of complications - pneumonia. Fresh, ideally moist air - a sure way to a speedy recovery. This means that you need to frequently walk with your child, especially at bedtime. Effective walks near water.