The concept of thermotherapy
Heat treatment - one of the oldest and mostcommon methods of physical therapy. The main venue of the thermal effects of the application is the skin. As a result of such exposure in the skin and adjacent tissue layers vary permeability barriers and the activity of enzymatic processes.
Depending on the nature and intensityirritation, as well as the area of the impact response of the body may be local or general, exciting almost all organs and systems (cardiovascular, nervous, respiratory, etc.). Most important to the action of heat reacts cardiovascular system. When thermal effects of skin blood flow vessels can be changed 100 times or more. Under the influence of high temperatures the blood circulation slows down, there is a passive dilation of the capillaries, the pulse quickens and the heart work more difficult, while at slaboteplovaya effects of blood pressure decreases.
The high efficiency of the procedures related to the fact that under the influence of the thermal factor is the detection of changes in the body:
- changing physical thermoregulation, respiration, tissue nutrition and metabolism
- blood is redistributed
- increased local temperature, and develops an active flushing of the skin
- animated capillary blood flow and metabolic processes
- Regional dynamics improved, resulting in a withdrawn and passive muscle stiffness
- there is resorption of inflammation, scarring, adhesions
One of the oldest coolants arehealing mud. Using the applicator method greatly simplified technique of procedures. Mud has become more accessible, cheaper, in addition, the opportunity to carry out its year-round and in vnekurortnoy practice.
For therapeutic purposes, used sulfide silt, peat, gittievye, knoll mud and sapropel.
The basis of the therapeutic effect of mud mechanism are thermal, mechanical and chemical factors.
The thermal effect is due to the fact that the therapeutic mud have properties inherent in all coolants - high heat capacity, low thermal conductivity, absence of convection.
The thermal conductivity of therapeutic muds depends on itsmineral composition. For example, the thermal conductivity of the peat is about half the thermal conductivity of the mud dirt as the mineral content in the peat is significantly less than the mud sludge.
Heat-retaining ability - size,reverse cooling rate showing how much time (in seconds) 1 g of this substance at specific heat and thermal conductivity may change temperature by 1 degree. peat heat-retaining ability is almost two times more than the silt mud, so it is the same temperature applications are carried heavier than peat mud.
Based on the physico-chemical properties of medicinalmud, set temperature limits for their therapeutic use. So, for peat maximum temperature is 46-48 C, and sulfide silt mud - 44-46 C?. Appointment procedure parameters (temperature, breadth of application, frequency and the number of procedures per treatment) are determined by the patient's condition (the presence of cardiovascular disease, evidence of vegetative disorders, and others.).
Currently, for ease ofprocedures using packed mud of both domestic and foreign production. Prepackaged available Sestroretsk dirt field - ultra-acid highly mineralized ferruginous silts, Anapa sulfide, knoll, peat mud and Dead Sea mud. Before applying the mud in a water bath heated in hot water or microwave oven, is then applied to the body area to be exposed, covered with oilcloth and a blanket.
appliqués temperature depends on the type of therapeutic mud, space character superimposing and inflammation. The course of treatment is 10-15 (20) procedures.
The indications for mud therapy are subacute andchronic inflammation of the joints, spinal diseases, central nervous system, the genitourinary system, respiratory system and digestive system.
The use of clay treatment
Along with mud asclays are widely used coolant. The mineral and chemical composition of its extremely diverse. The specific heat capacity of the clay to a large extent dependent on the amount of water in it - the thicker cooked clay mass, the smaller its thermal conductivity. Specific heat and thermal conductivity of the clay prepared for therapeutic use, approximately coincides with a specific heat characteristic mud dirt, and slightly less than that of the peat clay.
For therapeutic use clay withhigh viscosity, plasticity and freed from various impurities (pebbles, sand, heavy metals, etc.). Before using clay diluted with water to a consistency of plastic mass (instead of water is better to use a 5-10 percent. Common salt solution). Heat the clay as well as therapeutic mud in a water bath. The site of the body to be exposed, coated with a layer of heated clay 4-5 cm thick, covered with oilcloth and wrapped a blanket. application temperature should be 42-48? C, duration 20-30 minutes. The course of treatment is 15-20 procedures.
Indications for clay treatment are chronicmuscle diseases, joints, spine, peripheral nerves, the effects of trauma (fractures, sprains, bruises, etc.), abdominal adhesions, chronic diseases of the genital organs.
Thermotherapy sand or psammotherapy
Psammotherapy - treatment of hot sand asmud, known since the time of Galen and Avicenna. Compared with other coolants applied for therapeutic purposes, the sand has a higher heat capacity, low thermal conductivity and high water absorbency, which provides good portability hot procedures. They have a pronounced diaphoretic action. This is facilitated by the hygroscopicity of sand that provides a smooth sweating during the procedure.
In addition to the thermal sand exerts mechanicalaction - irritated skin receptors in the form of a gentle surface massage. As a result of such exposure stimulates blood circulation and lymph circulation, increases sweating. This causes stimulation of oxidative processes, improve kidney function, weight loss (up to 600-1000 grams per course). Sand baths exert an analgesic effect, reduces swelling of joints, help to increase mobility in them.
Psammotherapy carried out in the form of general and localbaths. Sand baths solar heating is carried out on the sea, lakes and rivers. For this form of 10-15 cm thick medallion the size of a man's height. sand temperature should be 45-46? C. Before the bath the patient carefully wipe with a towel and placed on a medallion, his head in the shade, on the forehead put cloth moistened with cool water. The patient's body is covered in a layer of sand 5-6 cm, the area of the heart and stomach is left open (on the stomach can put a layer of sand 1-2 cm).
The temperature of the bath is constantly adjusted to 48-50? C. The heat is transferred easily as by sweating is no overheating of the body. The duration of the common bath for adults 25-30 minutes for children 10-15-30 minutes. After the bath, the patient takes a shower or bathing in the water, then easily dressed resting in the shade for 30-40 minutes.
Local sand baths carried out on a limb,individual joints, the lower back. for local sand bath temperature may be higher than for the general - 55-60 C, a duration of 30-40 minutes to 60?. Procedures are carried out in a day or two days in a row (the third break), a course of 12-15 (20) procedures.
In the early twentieth century in medical practice as acoolant began to use wax - a mixture of saturated hydrocarbons, chemically inactive. It is produced mainly from petroleum. In practice, use purified paraffin, paraffin, dehydrated, containing up to 2.3 percent. mineral oils.
Physical feature of wax - the abilityexpand when heated and, accordingly, reduced in volume on cooling. Thus, during the procedure wax has soft compression operation, which allows to transmit heat more deeply located tissues and they provide nutritional activation processes.
Local application of paraffin isantispastic, analgesic and resolving action. Under the influence of paraffin improves blood circulation and lymph circulation, trophic skin and underlying tissues, decreases swelling, soften scars.
In carrying out the method of paraffinlayering melted wax at a temperature of 55-65? C is applied to the skin layer of 1-2 cm flat brush, covered with oilcloth and wrapped a blanket. The temperature of this application about 50? C.
Treatments last from 30 to 60 minutes, they are carried out every day or every other day, for a course - 15-20 procedures. After each treatment, the patient must rest for at least 30-40 minutes.
Another medical coolant isozocerite - product of petroleum origin. It consists of a mixture of hydrocarbons: paraffinic solid and gaseous (methane, ethane, ethylene, propylene), mineral oils, tar, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide.
Action ozocerite baths consists oftwo phases: there comes a spasm (sudden narrowing) of the capillaries, then develops a persistent expansion of them with increasing capillary network in the first 5-40 seconds. Induced vasodilatation hyperemia (redness) is retained after removing the application within an hour.
At the heart of the action ozokerite the body does not lieOnly its unique property of the coolant, but also chemical and biological characteristics. The chemicals provided in ozokerite ceresin wax, asphaltenes and resins are irritating to the skin, and biological agents, penetrating through undamaged portions affect the nervous system.
The therapeutic effect is absorbing, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, desensitizing (anti-allergic), antispasmodic and regenerating effect.
The main treatment methods are ozokeritotherapySame as paraffin: layering, salfetno-completed application, cuvette-completed application, ozocerite baths. In gynecological practice used vaginal swabs or ozokerite ozokeralina (40 per cent. And 60 per cent of ozokerite. Vaseline oil).
Ozocerite treatment is prescribed for chronicdiseases of different localization. It is used in practice arthrologic, trauma and surgery, diseases of the nervous system, female genital system, in ophthalmology, skin diseases, etc.