Methods of diagnosis of acute radiation sickness
Currently, in most casesDiagnosis of acute radiation sickness is not difficult. Characteristic symptoms of the primary reaction, as well as changes in the temporal characteristics levels lymphocytes, leukocytes, blood platelets do not only diagnose error-free, and relatively accurate process degrees of severity.
Chromosomal analysis of bone marrow cells andlymphocytes in the blood picture allows to specify the dose and the severity of injury immediately after irradiation, and in retrospect, through the months and years after the exposure. For example, when bone marrow irradiation region in a dose of 500 rads frequency cells with chromosomal abnormalities practically up to 100% at a dose of 250 rad - about 50%.
Methods for the treatment and prevention of acute radiation sickness, clinic
Treatment of acute radiation sickness strictlycorresponds to its manifestations. Treatment of the primary reaction is symptomatic, since vomiting cropped using antiemetic drugs, administration of hypertonic solutions (with uncontrollable vomiting) during dehydration must be the introduction of plasma substitutes.
To prevent the development of infections patientsisolate and provide them with the most aseptic conditions (boxes, ultra-violet sterilization air, the use of germicidal solutions). bacterial complications treatment should be urgent. Before the identification of the infectious agent is performed in the therapy of broad-spectrum antibiotics with penicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, lincomycin, and others. Antibiotics injected 2-3 times per day. In establishing the pathogen to antibacterial therapy uses drugs that act purposefully.
In the treatment of intestinal injury is assigned a fullto defeat hunger elimination of symptoms (usually about 1-1.5 weeks), allowed to drink only water (not juice), if necessary, prolonged fasting can be administered parenteral nutrition, careful maintenance of the mucous membranes of the mouth (rinse).
In order to combat infringements in hematopoietic systemneed platelet transfusions. If the hemoglobin level below 83 g / l in the presence of signs of acute blood transfusion of red blood cell is shown. When inappropriate use of red blood cell-stricken condition may be exacerbated as a result of radiation damage to the liver, as well as trigger severe bleeding.
The prognosis of acute radiation injury
After the elimination of all significant manifestationsacute radiation sickness patients recover. In mild and moderate injuries usually recover completely, although it may moderate asthenia persist for many years. After undergoing severe illness severe fatigue usually persists for a long time. In addition, such patients threatens the development of cataracts (clouding of the lens of the eye). The appearance of cataracts due to eye exposure dose of more than 300 rad. At a dose of 700 rad develop severe retinal damage, hemorrhage in the fundus, increased intraocular pressure, possibly with subsequent loss of vision in the affected eye.
After acute radiation sickness changes in the pictureblood is not constant, there may be a stable moderate decrease in white blood cells and platelets. The appearance of gross changes in the blood expressed as a reduction of blood cells, or, conversely, an increase in their number, which indicates the development of new pathological process (as an independent disease anemia, leukemia, etc.).