The clinical picture of Addison's disease
To fully understand how and whyadrenal crisis occurs, you need to know where it all begins. The root cause of adrenal crisis becomes the so-called bronze disease - that is also called a state of chronic adrenal insufficiency.
Addison's disease affects both adrenal glands thatIt leads to partial or complete stop the production of hormones by these vital organs. About the disease say, when affecting more than 85 - 87% of the tissue of the adrenal cortex.
The most common cause of illnessAddison's disease is an autoimmune malfunction in the body, when the body's own immune system against the body's up in arms. Another relevant factor that causes bronze disease called tuberculosis of the adrenal glands. Among the other "culprits" of this disease experts say:
- surgery to remove the adrenal glands;
- adrenal dysfunction after prolonged treatment of hormonal therapy;
- diseases caused by microorganisms, mushrooms, such as histoplasmosis;
- adrenal tumor formation;
- systemic benign disease - sarcoidosis kidney;
- bleeding in the adrenal cortex;
The condition can develop within a fewa few hours or days, depending on the severity of the disease and Addison factor because of which appeared suitable conditions for the development of complications. The clinical picture is as follows:
- A sharp decrease in blood pressure.
- appears heart arrhythmia.
- The patient feels that the heart is "not as usual".
- Excessive sweating begins.
- In the stomach appear well tangible sharp pains.
- Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea are opened.
- The patient is very cold hands and feet, with his tormented chills.
- Sharply reduced daily dose of urine.
- The extreme weakness of the patient does not keep his feet.
- It appears dizziness and altered mental status (hallucinations, speech disorders, loss of consciousness).
our website notes that the relatives and friends of the person,who suffers from Addison's disease, must be familiar with the list of symptoms of this dangerous complication. In the presence of at least some of them, the victim should be immediately hospitalized and correct his condition in intensive care.
How to diagnose adrenal crisis
The statement of an extreme form of Addison's disease involves the carrying out of emergency blood testWhich shows a result of investigationaccelerated ESR, leukocytosis aggressive and sharp increase in the number of red blood cells. The glucose level is below normal. The level of electrolyte (potassium, chlorine, sodium) decreases, while the protein present in the urine, blood and acetone.
Hormonal analysis indicates the patient's blood to reduce the concentration of corticosteroids, which are produced by the adrenal cortex. With the help of an electrocardiogram diagnosed with conduction disturbances of the heart muscle.
Treatment of adrenal crisis
The patient is assisted in a compartmentICU. The patient's condition is primarily corrected by corticosteroids, all dosages are chosen only individually. Concomitant therapies are antishock therapy, drip of glucose solution and electrolyte solutions.
In addition to this program of treatment can be identified, and other activities that indirectly contribute to improving the state of health of the patient, who is in a state of adrenal crisis:
- Blood Pressure and Temperature Stabilizationbody. According to the results of the pressure correction is judged to stabilize the patient's condition. Improvement usually occurs within 4-6 hours after intensive treatment.
- Prevention and adequate treatment of diseases of infectious origin.
- Timely and competent correction doses of hormone replacement therapy if the patient will have surgery.
- Intravenous administration of sodium chloride and 0.9% hydrocortisone to eliminate dehydration.
Prognosis after suffering adrenal crisis can not be called good - rather satisfactory.
After suffering complications and life-threatening conditionswith Addison's disease adrenal cortex is irreversibly damaged, due to which the person for the rest of life will need to be on the support of hormone-replacement therapy. Competent specialists prescribe a course of therapy so as to more fully compensate for those functions which are no longer able to fulfill the patient's adrenal glands. Human life is registered with a doctor endocrinologist, who will follow its current condition and, if necessary, adjust the dose of hormones.