Inspecting the inner surface of the intestinal tube using a special unique priborchiki - probe, the doctor can detect serious diseases, including cancers, non-specific ulcerative colitis, Polyps, diverticula, Crohn's disease. Sometimes colonoscopy is actively used foroperations on the large intestine (its length of approximately one and a half meters). For example, if during this kolonoproktolog endoscopy polyp notes, he can immediately remove it, and then send to a laboratory for further examination under the microscope.
General information about the survey
During colonoscopy, as alreadymentioned, it involved a special tube called a colonoscope. It is a long, flexible tube, equipped with an eyepiece, a light source device for supplying air into the lumen of the gut and tiny forceps, allowing the fence to hold histological material at the time of the survey. Have advanced models colonoscopy and built-in camera, it allows you to display an image on a computer monitor (increased scale enables the individual to consider carefully the field and do not miss the pathological changes), take pictures of the large intestine areas. Colonoscope having some special additional channels, is injected directly into the anus, and then moves slowly across the large intestine to the place of its transition into the small intestine. On average, the procedure takes 20-40 minutes. The survey is conducted under local anesthesia or general anesthesia briefly. At the doctor, there are many opportunities during the procedure:
- It evaluates the color of mucous membrane, its luster, vessels that are in the submucosal layer, the diameter of the lumen fixes, locomotor activity, the presence of inflammatory bowel wall.
- It may be noted various education on the mucous membrane, such as polyps, fissures, ulcers, scarring, erosion, diverticula, hemorrhoids, tumors, foreign bodies.
- It is possible with the help of tweezers "bite"polyp, or a piece of plot, calling on his mind suspected pathology. Then all this is transmitted to the laboratory, where they will spend the histological study, to clarify whether the process of benign or malignant.
- The patient will be spared from the surgery, because the study kolonoproktolog remove small benign polyps.
- Upon detection of a foreign body, it can be removed.
- If the ulcer site narrowed due to scarring, it is recanalization.
- Manage cautery or drugs to eliminate the source of intestinal bleeding.
- You can take a picture of the inner surface of the intestinal tube.
Now some clinics introduced another new andpromising method - virtual colonoscopy. It provides a method of computed tomography images of the colon walls. Doctors point out the advantages of this method: a study less traumatic, it gives a more accurate size and location areas with pathological changes. But there are also disadvantages: expensive procedure, during the examination it is impossible to obtain tissue samples for histology. In this case, the intestine (to stretch it) starts the air, so patients often complain of abdominal discomfort and associated pain. To colonoscopy gave the doctor as much information as possible, it is necessary to prepare properly. This MirSovetov already told his readers in his article "How to prepare for a colonoscopy".
When assigned a colonoscopy?
There are in medical practice are cases when you can not carry out this survey:
- with obvious signs of peritonitis;
- during an outbreak of acute infectious process (regardless of location);
- in heart and lung failure (in the later stages);
- at a time when there are signs of an exacerbation of ulcerative colitis or ischemic;
- if there are problems in the mechanisms of blood coagulation.
Colonoscopy is not carried out in pregnant women, it is transferred, if the patient suddenly starts an attack of diverticulitis or Crohn's disease escalates.
whether complications are possible?
Screening colonoscopy rarely leads to complications. Yet we call them:
- 1% of patients bowel perforation occurs - then emergency surgery is required to restore the damaged area;
- if the patient is under anesthesia, you can (in 05% of patients) observed pressure drop, or stop breathing, then immediately carried out resuscitation;
- More rarer bleeding (as in the procedure time and after a few hours or even days);
- proctologist if a polyp removed, the patient in the first few days there may be fever and pain in the abdomen;
- in extremely rare cases, colonoscopy after it is revealed that the patient was infected hepatitis C or salmonellosis.
If you fall into the hands of a skilled,kolonoproktologa experienced, then perform all of its recommendations, be quiet during the test, then it will be successful and will help your doctor make the correct diagnosis and start effective therapy.