One of the common causes ofsignificant deterioration or even complete loss of vision is cataracts. Therefore, more than 370,000 operations carried out by ophthalmologists for lens replacement in Russia every year. In view of the relevance of the question our website in this article will talk about the causes, course and stages of treatments for this disease.
Causes and symptoms of cataracts
The name of this eye disease has been given yetthe ancient Greeks and means "waterfall". Perhaps the Greeks were trying to show that the suffering sees the world and all things fuzzy, as if through an abundant flow of water and spray. Some people mistakenly think that the cataract on the eye appears plenochka that prevents normal to see. In fact, the pathological processes taking place inside the lens - it gradually from transparent lens is responsible for focusing light and creating a clear image is converted to an opaque yellowish-brown structure. This occurs because of swelling, clouding and disintegration of lens fibers. That is how they react to eating disorders in ocular tissues and the environment. The black area of the pupil during cataract becomes gray and then a whitish hue. Occurrence of cataracts and age-flow contribute to violations of eye injuries, eye diseases (high myopia, glaucomaChanges in the retina), and the radioactiveUV radiation, bad ecology, toxic poisoning (mercury, naphthalene), smoking, heredity, nutritional disorders and metabolism, endocrine disorders, for example, diabetes.
With the progression of pathological processes inlens redness and no pain, but visual acuity is greatly reduced. Man thinks that he is looking through misted glass or thickening fog. Sometimes before the eyes flit bars, stripes, strokes, spots, photophobia possible, when reading the letters look blurred and merge, it is difficult to sew, knit. A person may completely lose the ability to see. Diagnosis is the ophthalmologist, after having examined the patient on several special instruments.
The types and forms of the disease
Cataracts are divided into acquired(Arisen with age) and innate (genetic disorders associated with the disease or women during gestation). Acquired classified into senile (associated with age-related changes), traumatic (caused by chemical, mechanical damage), secondary (she is provoked by certain eye diseases), radiation (often occurs with prolonged exposure to large doses of radiation), and other forms of diabetic cataracts.
Senile cataracts - stage and its prevention measures
This is the most common form of cataract,affecting one or two human eyes after the age of 50 years. There are four stages of the disease - the initial (start clouding of the lens mechanism fibers), immature (are specific disorders of visual acuity), mature (full blurred vision and a weak contours of objects through the thick fog) and overripe. When overripe cataract lost the ability to see, the lens can swell, this leads in many cases to poor drainage of the aqueous humor and the development of glaucoma.
In some patients the disease quicklyprogresses, causing the loss of a year or two. But others may live for decades with cataracts, while noting a slight decrease in visual function.
A few tips that will help slow down the opacification of the lens:
- Fully fed, the eyes need vitamins andminerals. Especially useful beta-carotene. It is found in yellow, orange and red fruits and vegetables - carrots, tangerines, pumpkin, bell peppers. Do not forget about the butter, cod liver oil and salad leaves.
- Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is also activelyIt is struggling with the disease. Remember that in many askorbinki currants, kiwi, cabbage, oranges, lemons, grapefruits. Eat half a grapefruit for an hour or two after breakfast and lunch.
- Our eyes need a regulator of metabolic processes - riboflavin (vitamin B2). They are rich in blueberries, beans, nuts, liver.
- It slows the aging of the lens of the trace element zinc. Its a lot of blueberries, pumpkin seeds, oatmeal, liver, egg yolk, squid.
- Ophthalmologists from China, based on the datatheir research, it is advised to take green tea and make him a lotion for ever. Catechins in green tea is very well absorbed by the tissues of the eye, and it prevents the loss of vision.
- Doctors advise to drink courses pharmacy vitamin preparations for improvement of metabolic processes - Okuvayt Lutein forte, Kvadevit, Undevit.
- Intensive and excessive ultraviolet radiation from the sun can increase the risk of cataracts, so it is best to wear sunglasses to protect your eyes.
- Be sure to check visual acuity, and please consult eye doctor.
Surgical treatment of cataract
Currently, cataracts can be removed in four ways.
- The oldest method - intracapsularextraction, removal of the lens has lost its transparency with the marsupial capsule, in which it is placed. No function of the lens is performed after a selected period of rehabilitation contact lenses or glasses.
- extracapsular extraction method. During the operation, the surgeon makes a large incision in the cornea, removes the cloudy lens, but it leaves him the capsule in place, it puts an artificial lens. Since the cut significantly, the healing is slow, the patient is two weeks in a hospital under the supervision of doctors, when they prescribe the treatment to avoid complications.
- The following method is called phacofragmentation. It differs from the previous one in that, before removing the surgeon loses transparency crushes the lens into small pieces, cut so to remove these particles becomes smaller.
- To date, the most safe and gentleHealth is considered to be a method called ultrasonic phacoemulsification. First, under the influence of ultrasound surgeon softens the lens and brings it to a state similar to the "emulsion", which is the next stage outputs through a small puncture. Then gently inserted through the same puncture folded artificial lens at the same place where he should be. Then implanted intraocular lens (IOL for short) yourself straightened. Most leading ophthalmic centers use artificial substitutes imported lenses, created from high-quality soft materials with great functionality. Before the surgery, the patient is instilled local anesthetic drops, no pain no. After the manipulation did not even require stitches. With such a current operation is not the risk of complications is greater than 1%.
The duration of this operation of microsurgical - 15-20 minutes. After 2 hours, the ophthalmologist let the patient home with an accompanying.
And the latest innovation - is the development ofTechnology use a femtosecond laser. Even puncture carries no eye surgeon, and a new device. Then, an artificial lens is fixed stably in a pocket formed by the laser.
Previously, cataract were very afraidsurgery, but modern technology and design allow restore sight, reducing the risk of complications to a minimum. Easier operated on cataract in the early stages than the mature.
Drug treatment of cataracts
Scientists believe cataract and ophthalmologistsflowing process irreversible. They believe that developed at the moment, physiotherapy, pills and drops can not return to its former darkened lens transparency. Sometimes doctors prescribe to patients such drops as Vitafakol, Oftan-Katahrom, Vita-Yodurol, Taufon, Kvinaks, but they only slow down the progression of the cloud. Different formulations of the composition, price, manufacturer and its mechanism of action.
Traditional methods of treatment
It is useful to dig into the eyes of a drop of honey, dolotions for ever from the solution with the addition of the honey from the beekeepers. Scientists have shown that honey is a pantry of nutrients necessary to our eyes. Eat a spoonful of honey a day.
It is recommended to prevent hazeinfusion of orange flowers of calendula (marigold). Wash the thermos of hot water, to measure out 3 teaspoons crushed marigold flowers, carefully pour 0.5 liters of boiling water. Close the thermos lid. After 2 chasa infusion is ready. Strain it using a sieve or cheesecloth. Drinking should be 4 times a day for a large half cup (100 ml), preferably before meals. Another recommended the same infusion to irrigate the eye.
Simple exercises of complex Gymnastics for the eyesMassage the earlobes and the impact on the biologically active points also contribute to the preservation of vision.
our site expresses the hope that the above information and recommendations to help readers maintain vision for years to come and enjoy the world around them.