What unites such famous people like BruceWillis, Marilyn Monroe, Winston Churchill and Napoleon? They are all muddled, but made efforts to overcome speech problems, they were able to achieve success and fame.
Stuttering - a speech disorder, the main featurewhich are faltering in pronunciation, as a rule, the first sound of words. It would seem that we all sometimes stumbles. But such hitches and glitches in the speech of a healthy person does not have anything to do with stuttering. The main difference is that the stutterer is losing control of his speech organs, senses muscle tension. It is interesting that men suffer a similar illness in three times more often than women. Scientists explain this phenomenon by differences in the brain structure of both sexes.
But the problem remains a problem, and our site offers to talk to her, including the methods of treatment of stuttering.
Causes of stuttering
Just say that the causes of stuttering is still unknown to science. There are only theories in any way explain this defect, but none of them is not widespread.
Some experts believe that stuttering - itproblem of communication, as it often is enhanced when communicating human with other people, and, on the contrary, is not when a man is alone. But this opinion is not correct. In fact, it is not a wrong psychology of communication, and in a tone of the speech center.
Now scientists are more inclined to believe that thestuttering rooted in the human brain. After all, there are nerve centers responsible for speech. Children no older than 5 years easiest to provoke stuttering, during this period only in the brain begin to form speech centers, there is a synchronization between them. As a result of "failure" speech centers do not operate synchronously, and the person starts to stutter.
One such theory says that stutterer can hear his speech with a slight delay. Anyway, scientists continue to work on this problem.
Type of stuttering
To date, scientists have identified three main types of stuttering.
The first type It is typical for people with defective nervous system. The reasons for this abound stuttering. This may be a birth injury, and frequent disease in the first years of life, and genetic predisposition. An examination by a neurologist at such a child are various deviations (up to signs of increased intracranial pressure), although apparently the kid will look quite healthy.
The second type stuttering has been found in humans, leading handwhich - the right, but the leading eye - left. That is when the child learned to draw and paint (approximately 5-7 years), it transitioned to right-handers. And retraining often occurs due to the fact that the child is learning, repeating for adults. In the future parents will be difficult to understand the cause of stuttering their child as a defect, as in the first case, will develop slowly. This type of stuttering occurs more than 60% of people with a similar speech defect.
The third type stuttering peculiar 10% stutterers. It manifests itself in children with initially healthy nervous system. His illness they acquire as a result of severe fatigue and stress. The reasons for the emergence of a variety of stuttering: the child was upset because of the relative disease, overworked at school, scared the neighbor's dog. Adults things may seem silly and not at all frightening, but they can easily injure the sensitive and nervous child. Most often, such people have a speech impediment is enhanced by the neuro-psychological arousal. Therefore, they are so difficult to speak in public.
Treat stuttering people have tried for a long time. Greek orator Demosthenes suffered from this disease. Trying to get rid of the defect of speech, he tried to speak with pebbles in his mouth, speech reading difficult with the noise of waves. His fame suggests that the disease has been overcome.
In the XIX century doctors treated stuttering surgerymethods: stutterer removed part of the muscles of the tongue. Help could not all. I must say that stuttering - it is not so easy ailment to him it was possible to get rid of only by means of a scalpel.
Today there are as many ways to treat stuttering, and many theories explaining the defect. Our website tells you about the basic methods.
The traditional method of treatment of stuttering
The traditional method of treatment of stuttering is based on the use of breathing exercises. No wonder a person engaged in singing, never have problems with speech. His voice is free and natural.
One of the most popular programs relating tothe traditional method is "Breathing exercises Strelnikova." By performing these exercises, you may find that you are doing morning exercises. As an example we present two exercises that are considered most effective in the fight against stuttering.
Starting position: Stand with your arms down. Slightly bend forward, to the floor, rounding the back, as shown in the first figure. The head and hands should be omitted, and the neck relaxed.
Do a quick noisy breath at the end point of the bow, as if you sniff the floor. Lift, but not fully rectifies. At the same time make a passive exhale through nose or mouth.
Again bend, making quick noisy breath and so on. This exercise reminds inflating tires. Make it should be easily, without causing strain on the lower back.
Make consecutive 8 breaths, then rest 5seconds. Again 8 breaths. Norma - 12 sets of 8 breaths. our website understands the desire of many to get rid of such problems as stuttering. But still not in a hurry to perform a number of the first day. The load should be increased gradually.
Exercise "turn heads".
Starting position: Stand with your feet shoulder width apart. For convenience, you can put your hands on the sides.
Turn your head to the left and make a quick noisybreath. Then turn the head to the right - another breath. The exhalation is done in the interval when the head rotates from the left shoulder to the right. But at the same stop in the middle makes it unnecessary.
During the exercise, do not strain your neck, your arms and torso should be fixed.
For a start will be enough to make 8 breaths. When you feel confident in yourself, you can increase the number of approaches. But do not forget to take short break in between. Norma - 3 sets of 32 breaths.
These and other exercises of this complexhave a beneficial effect on the entire human respiratory system. It teaches the patient to breathe deeply, all the light, exercise the diaphragm, causing it to participate actively in the phonation, the vocal cords makes maximum mobility, which allows them to closely link up during the conversation.
Perform the exercise for 15-20 minutes in the morning beforebreakfast and the same evening after dinner. The first results you will notice after 2-3 months. You will notice the changes: breathing becomes freer and voice - natural.
There is also a traditional method of treatment of stutteringinclude relaxation. But to use this facility as an independent method, we do not recommend. The greatest results you will achieve by using relaxation in conjunction with other, more effective methods.
Nontraditional methods of treatment of stuttering
Even in ancient times people have noticed a connection betweeninternal organs and the points on the human body. Acupressure helps in fighting many diseases. This alternative medicine has been used successfully so far.
Acupressure - is a complex and long-lastingprocess, so I tune in to the long-term treatment, calculated on several courses. A course consists of 15 treatments. The interval between the first two rates is two weeks, between the second and third - about six months. The next two or three years, courses are repeated with the same interval. If you have again started to falter, then we can start the next course before.
First we need to find the right point. Push down with your fingertip on the estimated spot. If the patient has a feeling some aches and pains, you did everything right. But note that such feelings must not occur during the actual massage.
Make circular movements pad ofor index finger, gradually pushing the point. Replace the pressure force from weak to strong and vice versa. Continue massages one point for 3-5 minutes. During the massage, the person must be completely relaxed.
The figure shows the sequence in which massage should be carried out.
The first two days you have to use only the first and second terms. Then every day is added two more.
Massaged points are for the most parton the face and back and on the legs and human thorax, so we advise you to find a mate or become them for your child. If you are not confident, our website is strongly recommended to entrust this business specialist.
The first results may be obtained afterfirst course: it all depends on the age of the patient and forms of stuttering. But do not stop there. Acupressure restores the nervous regulation of speech, so the classes need to be carried out regularly, if you do not want to go back to stuttering.
Hypnosis - Another unconventional way of dealing with stuttering. But we do not encourage you to use it on their own, as it can be dangerous to your health.
Medical treatment for stuttering
This method relies on the patients receivinganticonvulsants and tranquilizers, retarding the psyche. One of these drugs is Phenibut. However, now scientists are opposed to medical methods of treatment of stuttering, as these drugs cause serious side effects. They have an impact on the entire body. In patients using anticonvulsants and tranquilizers, suffers concentration, there rapid weight gain. With long-term use in patients Phenibut marked drowsiness, nausea, allergic reactions, headaches, irritability and so on.
Anticonvulsant medications, and tranquilizers are contraindicated people skills relate to the high concentration of attention, and drivers of vehicles.
In addition, such drugs are not recommended to be used for a long time, but after their withdrawal stuttering returns.
can be used if necessarysoothing herbal teas and tinctures. For example, a decoction of Leonurus. It effectively soothes the nervous system, helps with stuttering (especially children). However, such tools also do not get involved.
Modern methods of treatment of stuttering
In the XXI century, and scientists are engaged in problemspeech impediment seriously. Today we have access to special computer programs that can help a person get rid of stuttering. The examples are given «Speech corrector».
The essence of the program to synchronize the voice andhuman auditory centers. Zaika says into the microphone, and the «Speech corrector» automatically retains it for a split second. Thus, the person who hears my voice with some delay, trying to adjust to it. His speech is smooth and continuous.
The developers claim that the programreduces speech defect by 70-80%, and at regular employment and eradicate it altogether. Note, however, that the person using such programs, only develops a habit of smooth and calm voice. Although many, and this is enough to get rid of stuttering.
One of the most popular computer programsfor the treatment of stuttering is by far the "07 Demosthenes." The computer creates certain situations that arise when dealing: criticism, resentment, anger, challenge and so on. A person is invited to respond to the microphone to the "challenge" of the program. After that, the computer evaluates how you coped with its task. It did not work - try again. The program also tells you what you need to improve.
Develop the skills a person moves into the real world, where it will not be any problem with the speech in such situations.
All methods of treatment of stuttering
Most often the authors of such techniques arepeople who on their own could get rid of a speech defect. They are working on a special program for years, perfecting exercises that helped them to themselves, and ultimately share their achievements with the community.
For example, the method of Professor Andronova-Harutyunyan. The method consists in a person's speech synchronization with the movements of the lead fingers. It is easy to imagine, if we remember that we are all gestures while talking.
The hand does not interfere with the conversation, but rather becomes a kind of support stutterer. It does not allow a person to stutter, "moving" ahead of his speech.
Put your hand on the lead lap. Fingers slightly bent, as if you were playing the piano. When pronouncing the first syllable phrases push the thumb to the knee. Do not release it until the end of phrases or words. Every next syllable separate the fingers pressing the following: index, middle, and so on.
Movement of the hand determines the pace and rhythm of speech, thereby slowing down the rate of speech. At first, this may frighten, but soon you will see in this and the pros: it becomes free and smooth, without any hesitation.
Man will depend on the hand, only the first time. The technique is designed so that soon it just do not need him. We just need more practice.
But that is not all. For complete recovery stutterer need to take the full course is divided into 4 stages. our site will present to you the course content, and of course you can try to go it alone. But it will be better if you complete the course under the supervision of a speech therapist. Otherwise, if your part will be any errors, then the desired effect you achieve.
On first stage the patient will have to learn to feel calmduring speech. Man, stuttering for many years, making it quite difficult, because he felt the anxiety every time communicated with others. And since many years.
Also at this stage, the peace of mind are closely associated with muscle relaxation.
By the end of the first stage man must learn to pronounce the syllables freely. In addition, he gains confidence in himself and his own strength, which is important for further treatment.
heart second stage It is to train the thumb leadinghand technique correct position. Man performs all of the same steps as in the first step, but more attention is paid to the movements of the hand. The successful development of this technique is recommended to perform the following exercises.
Adopt a relaxed posture. Shake hands and throw them to their knees. Then tighten the slack hand about the middle of the thigh. They should be rounded and relaxed, as if you were going to play the piano.
Exercise should be done as long as you do not feel that the hands are not at all tense.
Relax. Put your hand on your hip. Slowly push your thumb on the thighs so that the rest of the fingers at the same time a little lifted. In no case do not strain your hand.
When you press your thumb on the hip utter a syllable. If you press on your hip stronger, the sound of voices will increase, and vice versa, at a light pressure is reduced.
After each syllable uttered brush should be free to fall off. This gives a signal to the general relaxation of the body and, consequently, to remain calm.
Note that the movement of the hand should be slightly ahead of the vote, not to accompany him. Otherwise, on exercise, you do not get any result.
If everything is done correctly, a person can already speak without stammering syllables.
In the third stage stutterer will begin to speak whole words andshort expressions, synchronizing it with their hand movements. Here are exercises to help you master this step. But to transgress them only when you complete relaxation and exercise as described in the second stage.
Relax. Put your hand on your hip. Make pressing thumb, pronouncing the first syllable. Thus, you run the other fingers in sequence: the index, middle, ring and little finger. Press each finger must be synchronized with each individual syllable. But remember that the trigger - your thumb - you can not let go until the end of a word or phrase.
As the second stage will determine the strength of pressing force of sounding voices. During the exercise, make sure that all the fingers except the thumb, were relaxed.
After finishing a series of syllables, dip the brush. Shake it and pull down on the thigh. So you will teach her to relax.
Exercise similar to the first, but this time you have to devote to emphasize the beginning of words, and then to the whole expression.
Start simple. Pronounces the words of one syllable with the accent on the first syllable, then go to longer. When you start to get, you can go to the words with an accent on the second, third, fourth syllable.
In order to highlight the emphasis, click the corresponding finger is stronger and longer than the others. Note the smooth transition from one syllable to the next.
Later, you can go to the whole phrases, highlighting a strong and long-pressing the thumb of their logical sense.
On a fourth step the patient begins to work with the text. To start using short stories, familiar stutterer. The text is divided into words and phrases, between which the patient must keep up his hand to relax and feel calm.
Later, the patient goes to the more difficult tests, and the intervals between relaxation reduces.
Also at this stage, the person working on the expressiveness of speech, learn to talk without hands.
The important point of this method of treatment of stuttering -training in real life. Use their knowledge into practice to achieve great results. Previously, you could not ask for a loaf of bread, a saleswoman, but now you do it without thinking about stuttering.
All copyrights methods are different, but there is in them, andaffinity: mainly the author's method is a combination of the above methods. On the Internet you can find a lot of examples.
our site would especially like to highlight the momentthat in most cases, treatment of stuttering at an early age gives good results that last for life, regardless of the method chosen. Therefore, if your child stutters, then do not postpone the solution to this problem.
And finally, our site would like to brieflytell us how to behave, if in everyday life you often have to deal with a stutterer. Of course, try not to pay attention to what he says. It is better to focus on what he wants to tell you. If it so happened that the other person stopped, in any case does not finish him an offer. Also, do not say "do not worry", "speak slowly". It will only worsen the situation and make him stutter even more.
And try to treat these people with understanding. Their speech defect gives them more problems than you.