What we know about insulin?
To a person feel refreshed and full ofIt forces the body to constantly "recharged" by splitting into its constituent glucose substance. So it appears necessary for the well-being of energy. The most accessible nature of diabetes can be characterized as follows: the disease develops when the body can not afford processed foods breakdown of glucose.
Insulin is produced by a special group of cellspancreas - the islets of Langerhans. This material delivers glucose directly into the cell, where it is converted into energy. Quantitative indicators of insulin in the body are not static, they change very quickly - almost every minute. Factors that affect the production of this material are many. For example, when the person eats something, increased insulin levels, and during sleep, in contrast, is reduced. Also, some medications may reduce the production of insulin in the body turns.
When the sugar (glucose) is in the body,Blood is a sharp jump in its concentration up - as it should be. After some time the pancreatic islets of Langerhans produce insulin by which glucose absorbs body cells, therefore, the concentration of sugar in the blood decreases. In general, the sugar refining process of the body spends about 2 hours. Normal indicators of glucose, in which insulin is not produced, constitute 3,3-5,5 mmol / l.
What is diabetes
It is a chronic, treatable very reluctantly, a serious illness. There are two types of it - I and II.
Children, especially small, often sufferdiabetes I, insulin-dependent, type. In this form of the disease affects the cells responsible for producing insulin. It is not difficult to guess what is happening at this time in the body: the units of insulin that could produce the pancreas does not have time to spread sugar on purpose - a large number of unused glucose continues to circulate in the blood.
Diabetes mellitus type II - non-insulin. Insulin is produced as long as necessary, but cell receptors do not respond to it and as a result do not absorb glucose from the blood inside.
Why does diabetes
Cheerleaders parents have the following symptoms:
- Extreme thirst for no reason. The kid wants to drink constantly - regardless of the season and time of day.
- The child often goes to the toilet, "the small." Healthy kid pees on average 5-6 times a day, the number of urination in children with diabetesIt ranges from 10 to 20 times per day. Frequently observed enuresis (Urinary incontinence at night). The reason for this feature glucose "attract" to his water, resulting in increased urine volume and urine body releases excess sugar.
- Dry skin, dry mucus membranes. The body of the child due to illness focuses a large amount of water. Where does it come from? Besides the fact that the child drinks a lot, the intercellular space of the skin and mucous membranes also secretes a fluid that first enters the bloodstream and then excreted in the urine.
- Child noticeably losing weight. The cells receive less glucose, deprived of nutrition and energy.
- The child is spoiled vision. Excess sugar can not remain in the bodyonly in the form of fat - it can accumulate in the kidneys, blood vessels and the eye lens, which is why it occurs and clouding of visual acuity decreases.
- Permanent weakness and fatigue. The growing body lacks energy: these children is difficult given study, they lag behind in the physical development of their peers, they often have a headache.
In infants suspected of having diabetes mellitus could be the following features:
- digestive disorders - vomiting, constipation or vice versa, diarrhea;
- baby very often and long suckles.
Diagnosis of the disease in children
- Blood test sugar. The norm is 3,3-5,5 mmol / l. Indicators 7.6 mmol / L or higher suggests diabetes. If the blood glucose level increased to 7.5 mM / l, the child may have a latent form of the disease.
- Glucose tolerance test is used for the final specification of the diagnosis.
- In addition, carry out ultrasound of the pancreas to prevent inflammation in the body.
Treatment of diabetes in children
The problem of diabetes is engaged endocrinologist. diabetes type determines the characteristics of its treatment.
Treatment of Type I diabetes.
Almost all children have diabetes of this type. The treatment is a fundamental replacement therapy: the missing amount of insulin in the blood need to be filled.
Insulin, which is used in pediatric practicetreatment should be neprolongirovannogo (short) action. The most appropriate in this regard can be considered preparations protofan and aktropid. They are administered subcutaneously through a special pen. This form of administration of the drug is very comfortable for the child: he can fill the syringe itself, set the dose to be administered, and make a shot.
Unfortunately, science has not yet developed the meansfor complete cure of diabetes. But this is not a sentence, but rather the need for constant parental control over the health of the baby. It is very important to arrange proper nutrition for children. Categorically refuse:
- spicy and fried foods;
- sweet and starchy foods;
- pasta and some cereals;
Every day, using a glucometer to monitor the level of blood sugar.
Treatment of diabetes mellitus type II.
The child's body produces enough insulin, but the cells do not "notice" him, so important in the treatment of diabetes of this type - to avoid a sharp rise in blood glucose.
To do this, completely forget about the so-calleddigestible carbohydrates: sugar, chocolate, flour. The amount of carbohydrate remaining gutted. For the convenience of the food is measured bread units. This is the amount of product which contained 12 g of carbohydrates. From one unit of bread in the blood sugar level rises by 2.2 mmol / L.
To keep under control of diabetes, eating regularly and frequently - more than 6 times per day.
Prevention of diabetes mellitus in children
our site is sure: even if in the family there is no reason to fear for the child's health in relation to diabetes mellitus (no genetic factor and so on. d.), do not give up preventive measures. Unfortunately, 100% of the disease no one is immune. The rules are very simple:
- do not overeat;
- flour has more than modest amounts;
- control the amount of sugar eaten;
- know firsthand about the sport;
- engaged in the prevention of colds.