General information on the bypass
Bypass surgery - a surgical intervention,in which creates an additional way to work around the affected area of an important vessel with special grafts. With the English word "SHUNT" can be translated as "branch". Most often performed heart bypass vessels. More such operations are possible on the tanks and the ventricles of the brain (restoration of blood flow for too) and gastrointestinal tract (this is done in overweight). If you have narrowed (occluded) area is very important blood vessel creates a shunt bypassing the problem area, thus manages to recover in the artery blood flow. Generally, the inner wall of the healthy vascular smooth, without any obstacles and their tumors. But for the life of many people in developing atherosclerosisIn which the blood vessel wallssystem formed atherosclerotic plaque (cholesterol layers). They can significantly narrow the lumen of the vessel and cause disruption of blood flow in tissues and organs such as the heart. If plaques grow in size, they can fully close the blood to the body, resulting in the necrosis. Power heart through the coronary arteries is performed. And if the gap narrows in them, then resorted to coronary bypass (CABG for short). This operation is performed by surgeons with angina after a heart attack in order to restore normal blood flow to the heart muscle, as well as for the prevention of heart attack in the identification of significant narrowing of the coronary vessels. During bypass surgery creates a bypass saving "bridge", ie the healthy portions of the vessel are connected to bypass the damaged zone. As a shunt taken otrezochek healthy veins (usually subcutaneous Vienna tibia or femur, internal thoracic artery, radial artery of the patient). In some cases the resorting to plastic prosthesis implantation. If the restriction is observed in several places, it is necessary to insert a few shunts. The first coronary bypass surgery was successful, it was carried out in 1960 in the United States. In Russia, such an operation carried out in 1964.
The appearance of pain, discomfort in the heart area location (with stress, stress or at rest) - the body is a signal showing that a heart is not right.
After hospitalization, the patient obtain written consent to carry out the necessary investigations and operations, all filled in special forms.
Before CABG patients underwent electrocardiography,tests, coronary angiography of the heart (it is radiopaque study of coronary vessels, helping to pinpoint the location and degree of narrowing of the lumen). Medical staff explains the essence of the operation to the patient, teaching him how to breathe correctly then.
As the operation is performed?
When surgery is completed,the patient is disconnected from the monitor and the equipment in the operating room. Then it is connected to a portable monitors and taken to the intensive care unit (NICU). There people will stay a few hours (it depends on the complexity of the operation and individual characteristics). At this time, the patient care nurse, enters the necessary medicines, takes tests, perform research, it records vital signs, making dressings. Then the person is transferred to a specially equipped room, which provides monitoring of his condition. After surgery to prevent swelling lower limb patient is recommendeda time to be in elastic stockings (or bandage). Gradually, the patient is allowed to physical activity. Meals at this time diet. Comply with all prescription, carried out initial rehabilitation to people then able to return to previous activities. When the condition is stabilized, the patient is released for further convalescence home. A good option - to spend several weeks in a sanatorium or a specialized rehabilitation center.
Did complications occur?
Yes, sometimes after the operation are possible complications, manifested as follows:
- increase body temperature;
- increased heart rate, heart rhythm disorder;
- by pain in the chest, and joints;
- weakness, lethargy;
- the accession of infection;
- accumulation of fluid in areas of inflammation;
- the development of inflammation in the lungs.
There are suggestions that because the human immune system responds to the bypass.
To the lungs there was stagnation, afterrestoration of spontaneous breathing of the patient (in the postoperative period), it is recommended to use a rubber toy. Her patient should be inflated by 10 to 20 times during the day. All this allows you to ventilate the lungs and spread.
Several important recommendations for patients
CABG vital to patient, it is capable ofextend the life of man. But this operation can not eliminate the causes povlёkshie vasoconstriction. After such an operation, a lot depends on the patient. He will have to try to lead a healthy lifestyle, diet (№12 and №15), move more, do not smoke, take drugs prescribed by the doctor, strengthens the heart muscle, lowering blood pressure, blood thinning.
Reduce your daily salt intake, as well as foods rich in saturated fats. Proper nutrition can help prevent re-occlusion of vascular atherosclerotic deposits.
Watch your weight. Periodically, for tests to help you determine cholesterol, Control of blood pressure.
Eliminate cigarettes (nicotine destroys shunts).
For the first time after returning home, you willfeel tired and weak. To restore your muscle strength, engaged in exercises that will advise the physician. However, remember that the fusion of the sternum after the cut occurs gradually (it takes months), so the load on the sternum and shoulder belt must be adequate and dosed. Do not neglect the hiking, but watch your heart rate (under load it should not be more than 110 beats per 60 seconds).
Take only those medications,who wrote a physician. If you suddenly appear shortness of breath, swelling, change heart rate, significantly increase the weight, then consult a doctor.
The increased blood flow in the arteries of the heart graduallyreduce pain, ease symptoms of angina pectoris (or completely get rid of it). Gradually reduces the number of tablets. Some people after bypass surgery in general can do without the drugs that had previously taken. This operation helps patients change the course of your thoughts, emotions, give up bad habits, to appreciate his life, happily back to work and care for native people.