In the first part of the article multivitamins we talked about the general principles, whichshould guide the selection of multivitamin complexes for prevention. The continuation will be correct to talk about the importance of one or another element for humans. We hope that with this article for our readers will understand what should not pick their own special vitamin complexes, designated for medical purposes elderly and people with disabilities in the work of the cardiovascular system, in the view, and others. Only in the case if you want to improve the overall condition of the hair, nails, you can rely on their knowledge, and yet, consultation with a physician will only benefit.
Effects of vitamins and minerals to the body
Vitamins (from the Latin. vita - life) - are organic substances formed in the body or comes from food in very small quantities, but it is absolutely necessary to ensure normal metabolism and vital functions.
In 1956. It adopted a common classification of vitamins, which became vernacular. According to her all the vitamins are divided into 2 groups:
- fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K);
- water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, pantothenic acid, B6, B12, folate, C, niacin, biotin).
Vitamins act in a plant body andanimal food. Penetrating through the wall of the digestive tract, they form numerous derivatives which are combined with proteins form the enzymes involved in metabolism. That is, vitamins or part of the enzyme, or are components of enzymatic reactions.
Lack of vitamins weakens the body, the lack ofviolates the activity of enzyme systems in which they are involved, which leads to metabolic disorders and as a result, serious diseases. Harmful and an overdose of vitamins, which can be caused by excessive consumption of foods containing high doses of vitamins and vitamin-uncontrolled intake of drugs. Therefore it is very important to know what effect the different vitamins in our body, what kinds of food they contain, and how to manifest a lack of (hypovitaminosis) or excess (hypervitaminosis) of a particular vitamin.
|Vitamin||Sources / daily rate||Hypovitaminosis||supervitaminosis|
|B1 thiamin Essential for the nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, liver and heart. Participates in metabolism, primarily - carbohydrate. It helps in the treatment of skin diseases||Legumes (peas, beans), whole grains (oats, buckwheat), nuts (hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds), unrefined grains, yeast, flour products, meal, pork 1.3-1.5 mg for adults, 0.3 -1 mg for children||Headache, memory impairment, insomnia, Fatigue, decreased coordination;shortness of breath, hypotension, tachycardia, poor appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, constipation, weight loss. When vitamin deficiency: beriberi disease (damage to the nervous system, heart, edema and cachexia)||Allergic reactions and anaphylactic shock, tremors, vomiting, rash, fall in blood pressure; during prolonged overdose of the liver and kidneys|
|B2 riboflavin Provides renovation and restoration of the skin, mucous membrane of the internal organs. It prevents the development of cataracts. Eliminate the negative effects of toxic substances on the respiratory system||The liver, veal, fish, cottage cheese, cheese, eggs,milk, cream, yogurt; cereals (barley, buckwheat, oats), peas, yeast, spinach, potatoes, cauliflower Adult 1.5-1.8 mg for children: 0.4-1.2 mg||The deterioration of appetite, weakness, headache, Night blindness, pain in the eyes, cracks and peeling in the corners of the mouth, inflammation of the tongue and mouth, seborrheic dermatitis around the mouth, in the nasolabial folds, on the wings of the nose, anemia||Violation of kidney function|
|B5 pantothenic acid It promotes the "burning" of fat and energy production. Essential for immune system, nervous system, blood formation. It helps healing of wounds, stimulates bowel activity||Liver, kidney, egg yolks, fish, and dairy products; peas, yeast, nuts, cereals (buckwheat, oats), green leafy vegetables, cauliflower adults about 4-7 mg for children - 2-5 mg||Tiredness, fatigue, drowsiness, nausea, frequent acute respiratory infections, numbness, toes, dermatitis, the appearance of white spots on the skin||Heartburn, nausea, vomiting|
|AT 6 pyridoxine Participates in protein and fat metabolism, and normalizes the nervous system. It lowers cholesterol. It improves functioning of the heart, stimulates the formation of blood||Beef, pork, lamb, milk, cheese, eggyolk, fish (salmon, chum salmon), cereals (buckwheat, millet), wheat flour, potatoes, cauliflower, carrots, yeast, soy, bananas About 2 mg for adults and 0.3-1.4 mg for children||Fatigue, insomnia, dermatitis and stomatitis, cracked lips; poor appetite, indigestion; anemia in children||Urticaria, poor circulation in the limbs, blood clots, increased blood clotting|
|AT 12 cyanocobalamin It is involved in cell division (blood, immune cells, cells of the skin and the intestinal mucosa cells). It is necessary for immunity, the brain, the reproductive system. It normalizes low blood pressure.||Only products of animal origin: liver, kidney, meat, fish (herring, tuna), milk, cheese, eggs, cheese, seafood 2 mcg for adults, 0.3-1.4 mg for children||Disturbed digestion, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer; headache, drowsiness; impaired memory and vision; severe anemia||Allergic reactions: urticaria, angioedema; thrombosis, peripheral vascular disease, heart failure|
|Bfrom Folic acid It is necessary for blood formation, maintenance of mental balance, immunity, digestion. It prevents the development of fetal malformations during pregnancy||Flour, meal, green vegetables (cabbage,parsley, lettuce, onions), legumes (peas, beans, soy), yeast, carrots, cereals, oatmeal and buckwheat groats; liver, kidney, meat, chicken, cottage cheese, egg yolk Adult 0.15-0.2 mg for pregnant 0.4-0.6 mg for children 0,025-0,1 mg||Anemia, atrophy of the gastrointestinal mucosa and respiratory tract, fetal malformations, premature birth||Indigestion in children, CNS excitation|
|FROM ascorbic acid It is necessary for vascular health. It improves blood, has anti-inflammatory action. It increases the body's recovery ability||Citrus fruits, green vegetables (onions, cabbage,broccoli), bell pepper, black currant, mountain ash, apple, sea buckthorn, wild rose, parsley, sorrel, nettles, horseradish, plantain and other herbs.; bit in the liver and kidney of 60 mg per day for adults, for children - 30-45 mg||Reduced immunity, frequent infections, bleeding gums, pain in the joints||Increased blood clotting, heartburn, kidney stones, increased blood sugar|
|PP niacin It exists in the forms: nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. It activates brain activity, digestion, bile secretion. It prevents the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Nicotinamide reduces arthritis pain||Meat, liver, kidneys, heart, fish, eggs, cheese;potatoes, green peas, tomatoes, peppers, cabbage, cereals (especially buckwheat), legumes, peanuts, whole grains, brewer's yeast, mushrooms About 20 mg for adults, for children - 5-12 mg||Pain in the limbs, lower sugar content in the blood, cracks and inflammation of the skin, muscle weakness When vitamin deficiency: pellagra disease (dermatitis, diarrhea, mental disorders)||Redness of the skin of the face, neck, arms and chest, and the sensation of heat; palpitations, low blood pressure, increased blood sugar, rash, dizziness|
|H biotin Helps the absorption of glucose, lowers blood sugar and helps the absorption of protein and fat burning, improves the condition of the nervous system. Essential for skin, hair and nail growth||Yeast, legumes, mushrooms, green onions, cauliflower and cabbage, meal; liver, egg yolk, milk for adults about 0.1 mg for children 0.01-0.03 mg||Seborrheic dermatitis, anemia, hair loss, dry skin with a grayish tinge||---|
|A retinol It is essential for vision, skin cells, buccal mucosa, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory and urogenital tracts. It helps the development of sperm and eggs. It accelerates the healing process of the skin||Carotenoids (provitamin A): carrots, squash, sweet pepper, tomato, spinach, broccoli, green onions, parsley, beans, soybeans, apples, melon, rose hips, buckthorn. Vitamin A is only in animal products: liver, whole milk, cream, butter, cheese, cottage cheese, sour cream, eggs, fish oils Adult 1 mg, 0.4-0.7 mg for children. The value can be specified in the ME: for vitamin A 1 mg = 3333 IU||Night blindness "night blindness"xerophthalmia (dryness of the cornea), conjunctivitis, worsening of skin condition (dryness, peeling, purulent inflammations, abrasions), premature aging of the skin. Dry mouth, increased sensitivity of the tooth enamel. Reduced immunity, susceptibility to infectious diseases. In children, a violation of bone growth.||In acute poisoning: headache, dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, fever, visual disturbances, seizures. During prolonged overdose include headache, irritability, insomnia. Constipation, joint pain, increased bone fragility. The increase in the liver, spleen, hair loss, brittle nails, dry skin and mucous membranes, hypothermia, menstrual disorders More than 10,000 IU per day: the possibility of congenital fetal defects|
|D calciferol D2 (ergocalciferol) and D3 (cholecalciferol). Essential for bones, prevents the development of rickets and osteoporosis. Participates in the regulation of pressure, prevents the development of cancer, enhances immunity||D2 of yeast and bread, D3 constantlyis produced in the skin when exposed to UV rays found in cod liver oil, mackerel, milk, eggs, butter Adults - 0.0025 mg, children up to 3 years - 0, 001-0,0025 mg||In children, rickets, adult osteoporosis (reduction of bone strength) and osteomalacia (softening of bones).||Poisoning: nausea, vomiting, joint pain, cramps, petechial hemorrhages. Long-term overdose: kidney damage, heart, liver enlargement, increased bone fragility, anemia. Calcification (calcium postponement) in the tissues (kidney, lung, arteries). Latency growth and development in children|
|E tocopherol It prevents the development of cardiovascular disease, premature aging||Sunflower, butter and soybean oil, almonds, walnuts, peanuts, eggs, milk for adults - 10 mg for children 3-7 mg||Muscular dystrophy, deterioration of the heart muscle and reproductive organs||Allergies, high blood pressure|
|TO phylloquinone It supports normal blood clotting||Cabbage, parsley, broccoli, spinach, green beans, cucumber, soya and olive oil, cheese, eggs, milk, yogurt, fish oil for adults 0,045-0,08 mg for children 0,005-0,03 mg||bleeding diathesis||---|
Minerals are also essential to ourthe body, like vitamins. They are involved in all metabolic processes that are part of enzymes and hormones, vitamins maintain activity. They are needed to build bone tissue, for water and salt, and acid-base metabolism, for blood formation and blood coagulation processes, smooth operation and motor muscles.
Minerals are divided into 2 groups: macronutrients and micronutrients.
The need for macronutrients is 100 mg or more per day, the need for micronutrients measured micrograms.
|Mineral element||Sources / daily rate||shortcoming||Excess|
|Calcium Ca Essential for bone, teeth. involved in muscular contraction and the transmission of nerve impulses in the process of blood coagulation||Milk and milk products, egg yolk Adult 0.8-1 g, children, pregnant and lactating women to 1.5-2 g||anxiety, facial tics, seizures, low blood pressure, brittle bones (osteoporosis), the deterioration of the condition of hair, nails, skin and teeth||muscle weakness, apathy, impaired heart function, increased blood pressure, fractures|
|Phosphorus P Included in the bone and brain tissue involved in metabolic processes involved in ATP (a substance needed for muscle contraction) synthesis||Cheese, cottage cheese, milk, meat, liver, fish, eggs, cereals, beans, peas, bread for adults 0.8-1.2, for pregnant and lactating women - 1.5-2 g, for children - 1.2 1.5 g||Loss of appetite, weakness, tremors, tingling sensation in the skin, pain in the bones, dysplasia||It reduces the level of calcium|
|Magnesium Mg Participates in metabolic processes, its compounds have vasodilating properties, reduce the excitability of the central nervous system, increase bile secretion and motility of the bowel||Unprocessed grains, almonds, nuts, dark green vegetables, bananas, chocolate, bitter cocoa For Adults 350-400 mg, 150-300 mg Children||The excitation of the nervous system until the cramps, disturbance of a rhythm of heart rate, increased heart rate, decreased blood pressure, gastrointestinal diseases||The laxative effect, lethargy, muscle weakness, slow heart rate, decreased blood pressure|
|Sodium Na Required components of the intercellular fluid is involved in transmission of nerve impulses||Salt (sodium chloride) 4.6 g per day||Hypotension, tachycardia, anxiety, headaches, muscle cramps||Great thirst, increased blood pressure, fluid retention, edema, in children - anxiety, hyperactivity|
|Chlorine Cl plays an important role in regulating water exchange is required to produce hydrochloric acid||Sodium chloride (NaCl) About 2 g per day||Muscle weakness, respiratory depression||The excitation, increased blood pressure, heart palpitations, swelling, difficulty breathing|
|Potassium K It maintains the acid-base balance, muscle activity; glycogen and protein synthesis||Dried fruits, yeast, legumes, vegetables (potatoes, cabbage, carrots), fruits, cocoa, almonds, peanuts 3-5 g||Drowsiness, irritability, abnormal heart rhythm, decreased blood pressure, muscle weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, worsening bowel motility, reduction of urine||Increased reflexes, heart palpitations, nausea, cramping abdominal pain|
|Sulfur S Included in the amino acids, vitamin B1 is contained in keratin and melanin||Meat, fish, cheese, eggs, beans, bread, cereals, mineral water with sulphates 850 mg||Tachycardia, increased blood pressure, disorders of the skin functions, hair loss, constipation, neurotic reactions.||The sulfur compounds (eg hydrogen sulphide) are toxic, leading to severe poisoning|
|iron Fe part of hemoglobin, is necessary for cellular respiration processes||Liver, kidney, heart, products made from flour, meal, egg yolks, nuts, cereals, legumes 1-2 mg daily; for pregnant women - 3.5 mg||Iron-deficiency anemia||Vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, increases the risk of atherosclerosis, cancer, cardiovascular diseases|
|Cobalt Co affects hematopoiesis, participates in formation of insulin, B12, thyroid hormones||Meat, dairy products, liver, kidney, beets, radishes, green onions, garlic, parsley 0.2 mg||Weakness, fatigue, anemia, heart disorder (arrhythmia)||Violation of cardiac activity, failure of the thyroid gland, increases the risk of thrombosis|
|Copper Cu Included in the composition of vitamins, hormones, enzymes involved in metabolism, normal bone structure supports, tendons, blood vessels and nerve fibers||Meat, liver, seafood, vegetables, bread, cereals (oats, buckwheat, millet), legumes 2-5 mg||Anemia Aneurysm vessels, cardiopathy, osteoporosis, bone fractures, hypothyroidism, metabolic disorder||Violation of the liver and kidneys, brain damage, allergodermatoses, hemolysis, anemia|
|Iodine J Need to produce thyroxine (thyroid hormone)||Seafood iodized salt 0.1-0.15 mg for children 0.05-0.1 mg, 0.2 mg for pregnant women||Violation of the functions of the thyroid gland: hypothyroidism, children dysplasia and development, cretinism.||Graves' disease (hyperthyroidism)|
|Fluorine F Involved in the formation of bone and teeth formation of tooth enamel||Drinking water, as well as rice, beef, milk, tea, sea fish 0,5-1,5 mg||Dental caries, osteoporosis||Fluorosis (darkening and tooth decay), calcification of ligaments, increase bone density - bone spurs|
|Zinc Zn It is a part of many enzymes necessary for insulin production, immune cells, regeneration of the skin, hair and nail growth, since involved in the production of collagen||Beef, liver, nuts, wheat, rice and rye bran, cereals and legumes, cocoa, seafood, onion 10-15 mg for adults and 4-6 mg for children||The worsening condition of the skin, pustularinflammation, poor wound healing, peeling nails, the appearance of white spots on them, hair growth impairment, hair loss, diabetes, infertility, immune deficiency||Violation of pancreatic functions, deterioration of the skin, hair and nails|
|Selenium Se Has an antioxidant effect, it slows down aging, protects the body from the effects of heavy metals (cadmium, lead), strengthens the immune system||Garlic, wheat bran, mushrooms, olive oil, brewer's yeast, legumes, olives, pistachios 0.5 mg||The deterioration of immunity, hair and nails, dermatitis||High doses of inorganic selenium potentiate carcinogenesis worsens the condition of nails (nail delamination) and teeth (enamel damaged), may cause nervous disorders|
|silicon Si Essential for the strength and elasticity of the epithelial and connective tissue (skin, tendons, vascular wall)||Jerusalem artichoke, seaweed, bran, berries, greens Approximately 50 g||Rarely, there may be itching, decreased elasticity of tissues, increased vascular permeability, brittle hair||After inhalation of silicon dust disease silicosis develops. Manifested pulmonary fibrosis.|
|Chromium Cr Activates the action of insulin, helps to maintain glucose levels, regulates carbohydrate and fat metabolism||Brewer's yeast, fish, shrimp, crab, liver, eggs 0.5 mg||Changes in blood glucose levels, the risk of developing diabetes, weight change||Dermatitis, eczema, allergy of the body|
|Manganese Mg Participates in the regulation of the central nervous system is important for reproductive functions of muscle tissue||Whole cereals, soybeans, peas, potatoes, beets, tomatoes, tea, adult 0.1 mg, children 0,2-0,3 mg|
When choosing a multivitamin preparations in the firstall should pay attention to the composition and dosage of these items in it. It can be very different for people of different age groups, leading a different lifestyle for pregnant women, athletes, the elderly, etc. In recent years, widespread complexes "directional", for example, to view, to the cardiovascular system, in order to maintain and strengthen the immune system, for beauty (strengthening hair and nails, improve the condition of the skin), for people with high mental or physical and other loads.
Various preparations may contain doses frompreventive, curative and megadoses to (depending on the application), as they may contain various additional ingredients of vegetable or chemical origin. And taking into account the above-mentioned deviations that may occur in excess of the daily requirement, our website will recommend to the reception of certain multivitamins consult your doctor.
What there multivitamin "directional" and why they contain different amounts of vitamins and minerals? The answer to this question is set out below.
For children especially important to get enoughvitamins and minerals, because of their lack of impact on the physical and mental development. Children's age is one of the indications for preventive receiving multivitamin preparations. In pharmacies a wide selection of children's multivitamins in various forms (powder, syrup, gel, drops, tablets and lozenges), for different age groups of children (peak, Multi-Tubbs, BiovitalGel, Vitrum et al., As well as vitamin complexes for children, prone to allergies - Alvito, Wibowo, Baby, Multi-tabs Immuno Kids). For kids from 1 year old suit such form as drops, syrup, powder or gel (which can be added to food), older children - tablets and lozenges. Be sure to pay attention to the age recommended for use vitamins on the box!
For pregnant adequate intake of vitamins andminerals just need depends on the course of pregnancy and the unborn baby's health. First of all, during this period a woman needs vitamins C, B1, B6, folic acid. However, an excess of some vitamins is extremely dangerous during this period. Therefore, vitamin products, manufacturers have developed systems that are designed specifically for pregnant women, given women the body's needs during this period (high content of folic acid, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy, iodine, calcium, iron, also in connection with the danger of overdose of vitamin A vitamins for pregnant women of the it is represented by beta-carotene). Vitamins for pregnant women: Multi-tabs Perinatal, Pregnavit, Vitrum Prenatal and Vitrum Prenatal Forte, Complivit Mom Elevit Pronatal, Sana-Sol, Alphabet Mother's Health and others.
For seniors. With age, decreasing the body's ability toabsorption of vitamins, moreover, the body often elderly people weakened by various diseases and medications, multivitamin supplementation therefore it is often necessary. Especially high demand they have vitamins B, E, C and A. There are specific vitamins, such as watering-geriatrik, Gerimaks Geriavit Pharmaton, they are characterized by a high content of selenium or chromium, and Gerimaks and Geriavit Pharmaton also includes ginseng root extract ( adaptogen, which increases the overall tone of the body). In addition, the elderly (especially women) recommended the use of calcium supplements to prevent osteoporosis (calcium supplements with vitamin D - Vitrum Calcium, Calcium D3 Nycomed, Calcemin and others.)
It is known that vitamin shortage is reflected in the first place on the skin, hair and nails. For healthy hair needs vitamins A, B2,B6, H; Nail A, D, C, Ca for teeth, D, A, for the skin - A, B2, B5, B12, PP, H, E, and so a special vitamin-mineral complexes for beauty have been developed (for example, Vitrum Beauty, Beauty -Tabs Charm, Mertz et al.).
For eye health essential vitamins A, C and E. Vitamins for vision (such as Lutein complex Vitrum Vision, Blueberry Forte, Sofia) contain a complex of vitamins and minerals: A, vitamin B, E, beta-carotene, C, zinc, selenium, etc., as well as extracts. bilberry, lutein and other phytochemicals that promote eye, preventing the development of visual impairment.
In people with pathologies of the cardiovascular system increases the need for antioxidant vitamins(C, E, A, zinc). It is also necessary for the heart Vitamins B1, B6, niacin, rutin, etc. For these purposes developed drugs:. Ascorutin, Aevitum, Vitamaks Plus, Vitrum Cardio. These systems are aimed at reducing cholesterol, improving heart and vessels.
Also, there are special vitamins for people with diabetesBecause they are especially in need of vitamins E, C, group B, as well as chromium, zinc and selenium (Tri-Vi-Plus, Vitamaks).
Vitamins for the prevention and treatment neurological disorders - It is primarily B vitamins (Neyromultivit, Milgamma).
People with elevated mental and physical exertion especially need vitamins A, C, D, E, B6, so for them there are systems aimed at toning and stress (Supradin, Gerimaks Vitrum Superstress, Berokka etc.).
However, our site again recalls that whenthe choice of a drug it must be remembered that the dosage, duration of use, use it in conjunction with other drugs, taking into account the presence of certain diseases (and this significantly affects the content of vitamins in the body) - a subject for serious reflection. The use of vitamins must be reasonable and thoughtful, it is desirable to hold it under the supervision of a physician with the necessary research for the diagnosis and monitoring of therapy.