Often young parents to see on the skin of your baby rash hoarse, or puzzled panic. After the rash is often accompanied by infectious diseases such as scarlet fever, measles, chickenpoxRubella. That's something rubella and will be discussed in this article. What symptoms are characteristic for her? As it flows? What is dangerous for pregnant women and fetus? Let's try to understand.
General information about the disease and a bit of history
Rubella - worse the illnessinfectious nature, most often occurring in children, in adults, it takes a much harder can also occur in women, waiting for the child, which is extremely undesirable. Rubella characteristic rash of red or pink color, a sore throat or nasal glands increase in size, usually on the back of the neck and occipital. Rubella The study involved for a long time, articles about it appeared in handbooks on medicine around the XVI century, and only in 1829 the doctor pointed out how to distinguish her from the measles and scarlet fever. Researchers from Japan in 1938 proved,that rubella virus causes it, his family has been studied in 1961 Ophthalmologist from Australia established in 1941, that this disease is very dangerous for a pregnant woman and the fetus and can cause many severe pathologies. Protivokrasnushnaya vaccine was created in the early 70s.
The causative agent is a member of the genusrubi-virus. Hence the second name of the disease - rubeola. Pediatricians have noticed that often put this diagnosis in the winter or spring. In cities rubella suffer more than in the villages.
How do you get infected?
You can become infected only by a sick child oradult person by direct contact. The virus is unstable in terms of the environment, so infection through toys, dishes, linens, towels not possible. Sick man distinguishes rubella virus in the air when speaking, sneezing, blowing the nose or coughing, That's just such a droplet methodpathogen tries to penetrate the mucous membranes of another person. Infection can occur from a sick mother through the placenta to the fetus, which is very dangerous because of the risk of malformations and deformities (known teratogenic effects of the virus). Also, our website readers should be aware that a virus may be the infant with a congenital form of the disease. And in such cases, the virus can live in the baby for a long time - up to 24 months, and recent studies show that the virus can be allocated up to 30 months, that's a long of virus.
The most susceptible to rubella children from one year toseven. Then, too, possible contamination, and high susceptibility among women of childbearing age. Until the year the kids get sick less often rubella, as they are transmitted from the mother's antibodies, if it has been vaccinated or had immunity as previously suffered rubella.
Symptoms of rubella
The causative agent gets on the mucous membranes of the nose or throat, and then enters the lymph nodes, and there begins to actively proliferate.
Therefore, in the first phase of the disease usually beginswollen lymph nodes, which are located on the back of the head, neck, near the ears. This is the signal for the parents. In the future, swollen lymph nodes and can reach values of walnut. Then the virus is spread by the bloodstream, affecting the skin and cells.
The average incubation period lasts 16-21 days, sometimes it is reduced to 11 days or even increased to 25 days. These days there is a risk of virus infection from the patient.
In the first three days of the child's symptoms appear,common colds processes - the baby becomes lethargic, whining, loses appetite, capricious, does not want to play, gets tired easily. Temperature column stops at the level of up to 37.5 degrees. The child may complain that it hurts to swallow, that was raw and tickling in the nose and throat. The sky visible pink or bright red flecks. Sometimes, the child tert eyes, they may blush from it and tears. Sometimes he puts his hand to his head, apparently, there is pain. Sometimes sneezing, runny nose and cough, usually without phlegm. At first it may give the impression of normal colds. In adults, these symptoms are added achesin the radial and carpal joints, pain in the legs (due to toxicity), mood decline. And on the third day of illness there is its main diagnostic symptom - suddenly and rapidly expanding small rash. Please note it on the face (cheeks, the area behind the ears, back of the head, forehead, hairy part), then descends to the neck rash, moves on, grabbing his back and limbs. As a rule, on the palms and soles of the feet it does not happen. Rash bright - pink or red. Some of its elements such as dots or spots round or slightly oval, in the future, they do not merge, but sometimes cause itching. Here at this point and the body fights infection, immunity and forming antibodies. During this period, the column of mercury thermometer stops at around 38 to 39 degrees, and the lymph nodes continued to increase in volume. Rash as suddenly and goes away after 1-3 days, leaving no trace. Observed and latent forms of rubella, when all the little symptoms are expressed.
Once the parents suspected rubella should becall the clinic and invite the doctor home. Only a physician who has the necessary knowledge to properly diagnose. No need to drag the sick to the hospital, this will cause a worsening of the condition and trigger the spread of infection to other people. Laboratory studies of blood (venipuncture) confirm the diagnosis.
Are there features of the disease in adults?
In adults, rubella is more severe,the temperature may be higher rash more malaise more pronounced. Sometimes the rhythm quickens the heart. For complicated cases of inflammation of the joints (arthritis), Frequent and meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the tissues of the brain and nervous system), at least to the disease joined pneumonia and ear inflammation.
Infection during pregnancy
Rubella is very dangerous for women, hatchingchild. They disease is latent in (almost no visible symptoms), mild or severe (complications) form. If a woman becomes ill during the period of the fourth to the twelfth week of pregnancy, when the embryo formed organs and eye parts, heart, ears, then the fetus may be congenital rubella, which is most often accompanied by hearing loss (or hearing impairment), cataracts (clouding of the lens or other changes in the visual system structures), heart defects, developmental delays and other pathology. Modern methods of studies of blood mother and the fetus (seroimmunologiya) will enable doctors and women decide the question of how to do more - to continue the pregnancy or not. To not be in this situation, the expectant mother should be to make every effort to prevent rubella infection. And if the oldest child became ill, the woman is better to temporarily exclude contact with him, and all the care of the child entrusted to the husband or relatives.
Tactics of treatment and recommendations for patient care
If there are no complications, the room in a hospital intime course of disease is not required. Then, and in particular the methods of treatment of rubella is not necessary. The thing is that the body itself has to develop antibodies and defeat viruses, creating strong immunity for many years. In the first days of the child should be in bed under adult supervision. Rest and sleep will have a beneficial effect, promotes rapid recovery. For the entire period of the disease the patient is isolated from children or workforce. Meals should be given gentle to the food did not require large expenditures of the body forces on the digestion. And if the patient has no desire to eat, then do not insist. So the body has thrown all forces to destroy the virus, he does not want to waste energy on the cleavage products.
There will come a time when you need to restocknutrients, so at this point and return appetite and hunger. Then the patient is appropriate to offer fruits and vegetables that are in the composition of vitamins, micro and macro elements. Recommended rosehip syrup, multivitamin. Do not forget to drink abundantly baby tea, fresh juices. You can make fruit drinks or fruit drinks of currants, cranberries, cranberry. Sometimes the doctor will recommend symptomatic treatment - the nose drops with anti-inflammatory effect, syrups and cough syrups ( "Bronhikum", "Stoptussin", "Pertussin"). If a rash with itching and plentiful, the doctor will prescribe an antihistamine medication, such as Tavegil, Suprastin, Diazolin. If your joints ache may use ibuprofen. Mymedinform.com Readers should remember that Shoot down the temperature below 38.5 degrees are not worth it, especially the bodycreate such conditions in the internal environment, so that the virus died. Questions about the appointment of pharmaceutical products solves a doctor. If you are very concerned about the enlarged lymph nodes, then they have shown to the imposition of a dry heat. Useful traditional medicines, such as Vitamin tea with rose hips and rowan. For adults and children after seven years should make a collection of herbs, having immunostimulant, anti-inflammatory and expectorant action, for example, elecampane root, licorice root and root alteynym. Ingredients take on the tea spoon, pour boiling water for one cup. Cover the lid. Then we filter after 25 minutes and offer the patient. So several times a day.
But ill pregnant womenpreferably be controlled by medical staff. Some researchers argue that such women should be administered gamma globulin (10-30 ml), to avoid rubella infection of the fetus. However, such an appointment is not supported by all the experts.
If the disease is complicated, the doctor may put a patient at the hospital.
In Russia, there is a vaccine to preventrubella, the first time the injection is done at the age of years old to eighteen months, the second stage - the age of six. After three weeks, it produces immunity that lasts for 20 years, almost all people vaccinated. If the woman's blood insufficient antibodies against rubella, the immunologists are advised to make another vaccinated shortly before planning a pregnancy.
These are the basics is important to know about rubella. These tips will help your child (or adult) will recover. But expectant mothers get an idea of how to protect themselves and the fetus from the insidious virus, to welcome the baby born is healthy.