In addition, splenomegaly may be caused byvarious diseases in which there is lymphadenopathy. Thus, the nodes can be increased due to an infectious inflammation, infiltration of cancer cells, as well as due to the enhanced destruction of blood cells.
Increased spleen primarily determinedpalpation. Only this method can not be considered accurate. Therefore, in addition to probing in order to clarify the diagnosis, used computed tomography and radionuclide scanning.
The marked increase in the spleen may appearin chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, nehodzhinskoy lymphoma, hairy cell leukemia, polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. This pathology is also observed at a late stage in the third part of the people suffering cirrhosis. Signs of cirrhosis is also jaundice, accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, swelling of the feet and hepatomegaly. These patients formed hepatic encephalopathy, which manifests itself in the form of indiscriminate speech and lowering the level of consciousness.
The cause of congestive splenomegaly maybecome a thrombosis of the splenic vein and certain disorders of vascular development. In addition, the spleen may increase in severe forms brutsellaza. This is a fairly rare disease. His first symptoms is headache, Weakness, back pain, fever, poor appetite, and sweating. Later increased spleen and liver.
Call the enlargement of the spleen may someinfectious and inflammatory diseases. Particularly acute is an infection (eg, subacute bacterial endocarditis) and amyloidosis. When an abnormal amyloid protein accumulates in the spleen, it marked increase may occur. In this case there are associated symptoms of the disease vary widely. Sometimes diagnosed kidney failure, which manifests itself in the form of a lack of urine. Heart failure may be manifested in the form of tachycardia and shortness of breath. Also accompanied by an increase in the spleen may be violations of the gastrointestinal tract.
Provoke disease development canchronic infections, sarcoidosis and some connective tissue diseases. Enlargement of the spleen is also evident on the second or third week of endocarditis. Thus it flows with the other symptoms of the disease.
In the diagnosis of the disease was originally goinginformation from the patient's words. We need to find out what disease has led to an increase in the spleen, and what the patient's complaints. The doctor usually finds out how long these symptoms began to disturb a person and what he relates their appearance. The doctor also needs to know whether the patient visited exotic countries before the onset of the disease, whether there were changes in the general condition, whether the patient smokes and whether it is abusing alcohol.
In addition, for the physician is crucial information aboutwhether there are relatives of the patient gastrointestinal diseases, blood, spleen and liver. Further held spleen palpation to determine its size, tenderness and density. Then the patient is recommended to undergo some laboratory tests. In particular, it can be assigned a clinical blood test. biochemistry, Coagulation, general urine analysis, Coprogram, feces analysis on helminth eggs, andperformed blood cultures to detect the type of pathogen. In addition, the passage of ultrasound of the abdomen may be imposed, computed tomography, sternal puncture, autoimmune biochemical markers and genetic research.
Treatment splenomegaly primarily directedtherapy for the underlying disease. In some cases, the question of the need to remove surgically enlarged spleen. For example, surgery is indicated for Gaucher disease, thalassemia, and hairy cell leukemia. When you delete a patient increases susceptibility to pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, and meningococcus. For this reason, such patients are appropriate vaccination.
Since the increase in the spleen is notindependent disease, then some specific preventive measures of this disease does not exist. As preventive measures are used that prevent the emergence of diseases that cause splenomegaly. In particular, patients are advised to stop smoking, use of alcohol. You also need time to vaccinate patients, for example, if you are planning a trip to an exotic country. To prevent rupture of the spleen MirSovetov recommends moderate physical activity to engage in. In addition to this a couple of times a year, it is desirable to pass examination by medical specialists.