However, some areas are covered by the lightscars. Lung tissue shrinks and thickens. As a result of the bronchial tubes are deformed and disturbed the normal gas exchange functions in areas where there is pathology. Due to the permanent seal, light decrease in size. The destructive process of the lung tissue damage is irreversible when pnevmoskleroze.
The study of this disease has led to the conclusionthat lesions may begin at any age, but is most exposed to his middle-aged male smokers. The main causes of this diagnosis are frequent pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, Lung abscesses, and tuberculosis.
The development of such a disease possibly due to anyprolonged infections in the lungs. Therefore, the disease can be caused by inflammation of the transferred pulmonary vesicles (alveoli), fungal infections, lung lesions of vascular walls, granulomatosis and sarcoidosis of the lungs.
Sometimes pulmonary fibrosis develops duestagnant processes in severe heart failure and other disorders of serdechnoso-sudistoy system and circulatory system. The cause of this disease may also be a penetration of gastric juice and undigested food particles in the respiratory tract due to the presence in human chronic astroezofagealnogo reflux.
The appearance of pulmonary fibrosis possibly because ofchemical poisoning as a result of certain mechanical effects on the lungs (shock, injury), due to a chronic reduction of immunity, and also owing to the particles entering the lungs that damage their tissues.
Types of fibrosis
When local changes are no externalsymptoms are generally not observed. External symptoms are characteristic only for the diffuse form of the disease. In particular, in this case, symptoms such as dry cough. dyspnea, Weakness, weight loss and fatigue.
With the defeat of the upper parts of the lungs markedsuch feature as "Hippocratic fingers", in which the fingers are swollen and look like drumsticks. If the affected lower lung lobe, the pathology affects the bronchi, bronchioles and small. If such patients to listen to the lungs, it will be heard crackling sound when inhaling.
For the diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis predominantlyusing X-rays, with which you can make an assessment of the state of the lung tissue, the extent of damage, identify the type of change (scar or infiltrative) and find out the cause of the disease. The pictures can be determined whether there is a tumor in the lungs.
In order to get a complete picture, doX-rays of the chest in the side and frontal projection. In addition, it is best to do a CT scan. This diagnostic method is particularly useful for studying intralobular connective tissue and for estimating the degree of its destruction.
If there are fibrotic changes, thenradiograph indicated a distinct pattern. If the connective tissue of the bronchi and bronchioles and interalveolar partition normally, this should in no way reflected on the X-ray. In case connective tissue increased in volume, then the picture is visible in the form of honeycomb, manifesting over the pulmonary pattern.
Treatment of pulmonary fibrosis
The first necessary to treat the disease,against which originated fibrosis. In particular, it may be pulmonary disease and cardiovascular system. If the inflammatory process in the lungs does not occur, the fibrosis is usually not treated.
In the treatment of fibrosis, in particular,used drug therapy. So, if the disease was triggered by pneumonia or bronchitis, is appointed by the anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and expectorant drugs.
During fibrosis therapy is widely used physiotherapy, therapeutic exercises. In this exercise the muscles and breathing. Patients are recommended tempering procedures and swimming.
If necessary, the use of surgical treatment fibrosis. In this case, usually the removal of the affected area of the lung tissue.