Called acute vascular collapsefailure, which expose a sharp drop in the arterial and venous pressure, a decrease of vascular tone and reduction in cardiac output. The rapid pathologic process metabolism slows down, the organs and tissues are experiencing an acute shortage of oxygen, all functions of the body is extremely depressed. This phenomenon - not that other, as a complication of severe illnesses.
Causes of collapse
There are many factors that have a direct orindirectly may affect the development of the collapse, but MirSovetov considers it necessary to distinguish two main reasons underlying this pathological condition:
- With a sharp and large loss of blood volume decreases bloodstream and, as a consequence, ceased to fulfill the capacity of vessels that make up the blood stream system.
- The impact of harmful and toxic elements in thevascular and venous walls invariably ends with the loss of the general tone of the circulatory system as a whole. On this basis, developing an acute vascular insufficiency, sharp decline in circulating blood mass and acute hypoxia.
With the reduction of vascular tone in the affected blood pressure drops, resulting in his condition continues to deteriorate avalanche.
Different species have different point of collapse launch pathogenetic processes. Here are the most common ones:
- profuse loss of blood;
- general poisoning of the body;
- abrupt change in body posture;
- acute attack pancreatitis;
- reduction of the oxygen concentration in the air which the person is breathing.
The manifestation of a pathological condition
There are several classifications that sharecollapse into species according to various characteristics. We give here a classification of collapse by origin - due to its simplicity and convenience, it occurs most often. So, collapse happens:
- infectious-toxic - develops when the condition of the heart and blood vessels due to disrupted bacterial activity, caused by an infectious disease;
- toxic - develops as the result of a general poisoning of the body;
- pancreatic - appears on the basis of the heavy defeat of the pancreas;
- hypoxemic - becomes a cause of an acute shortage of oxygen or high atmospheric pressure conditions;
- burns - caused by extensive severe burns of the skin;
- hyperthermal - is the result of long exposure to the sun;
- dehydration - develops in a large loss of fluid;
- cardiogenic - in development is based on a variety of serious diseases of the heart muscle;
- haemorrhagic - comes at a weight loss of blood. This phenomenon is also known as a deep shock;
- plazmorragichesky - cause of its development becomes a big loss of plasma due to heavy diarrhea or extensive body burns;
- Orthostatic - happens when a sharp change of posture (eg, the body cast in a vertical position);
- enterogenous - can occur in people with a remote part of the stomach after a meal.
In addition, it is worth adding that the cause ofhemorrhagic collapse regard as obvious external bleeding, and hidden internal bleeding. It is about ulcerative colitis, gastric ulcer or traumatic lesions of the spleen.
During cardiogenic collapse there is the likelihood of developing arterial thromboembolic events, when on the ground myocardial infarction or angina decreased stroke volume of the heart muscle.
The condition is very close to kollapticheskomu cancome with an overdose of drugs of some medical groups, including potentially hazardous believe sympatholytic, antipsychotics, and blockers.
Orthostatic hypotension, occurs whenPeople for a long time in an upright position, can occur in a completely healthy person, with children and adolescents susceptible to this sudden ailment more than others.
Toxic collapse often becomesregularity, characteristic of people whose professional activity is associated with toxic, hazardous substances: cyanide, oxide carbohydrate, amino compounds.
If we talk about age categories, then amongthere are more children with pathological cases than among adults, and children suffer this phenomenon extremely hard. As we have already noted, there are quite a few reasons for the development of collapse: a serious condition can appear in a matter of minutes with intestinal infection, flu, pneumonia, an allergic reaction of the immediate type, impaired adrenal gland activity. In addition, collapse is often caused by severe fear, trauma, and large loss of blood.
How to help the victim
At the slightest suspicion of rapidly growing collapse hurry without delay to dial Ambulance. Specialists can take to identify,how dangerous condition of the victim and, importantly, immediately appoint a primary treatment regimen. However, even more important to save the person's life are your actions to provide first aid. This is what is required from you:
- Put the victim on a flat and hard surface is enough, say, to the floor.
- Lift the person's legs and put them under thempillow, and head back slightly to make it easier for him to breathe. For the same purpose, unfasten buttons on the patient’s clothing that may constrain the chest, unfasten the belt that presses on the stomach.
- Open the window: the room should be fresh.
- Try to bring a person to life: Bring the ammonia to his nose, intense massage your ear lobes, rub his temples. If the patient is bleeding, try to stop it.
Attention! Man allegedly being in a state of collapse, contraindicated drugs, which dilates blood vessels (No-spa. Glycerol, Valocordin). You also can not beat the victim on the cheek in an attempt to bring him back to consciousness.
Treatment of collapse
Treatment of a person with orthostatic and infectiouscollapse is possible under unsteady conditions. But hemorrhagic collapse, which developed on the basis of great blood loss, requires immediate hospitalization.
The pathological condition caused by the collapse, corrected using the following process steps:
- If possible, eliminate the factor that became the immediate cause of the collapse.
- Stop the bleeding, then carried out a general detoxification, restore full supply of oxygen the body of the victim.
- Enter the adrenaline and spend antidotal therapy.
- Normalizes the heart muscle.
- Increase the arterial and venous pressure, stimulates respiration.
- Enter the blood and plasma substituting drugs for activation circulatory.
All these activities help to bring man back to normal.
Prevention of complications in the form of a collapse
To prevent the development of collapse, we must remember these rules:
- underlying disease requires a responsible treatment;
- Patients in serious condition and state of moderate severity in need of constant supervision;
- teachers should be mandatory to inform that on the rulers, gatherings and other events for children can not be a long time to stand still.