With a normal pregnancy, the placentaIt is located in the upper part of the uterus (on the uterine bottom), thereby not blocking the birth canal and allowing the baby to be the first to be born. It happens that a fetal egg is attached to the wall of the mucous membrane in such a way that the placenta, increasing in size, partially or completely blocks the baby's birth canal. A woman with placenta previa can not always give birth on her own and she is given cesarean section.
Types of placenta previa
Total distinguish 3 types of placenta previa depending on its location relative to the internal os:
- Central (full) presentation - in thisarrangement of internal os is covered completely by the placenta. It is the most dangerous type of previa, in which the birth the natural way possible, even with the full opening of the cervix - the child's head can not get into the birth canal, closed placenta. This type of child seat is fixed locations in more than 20% of all cases of disease. Women who put such a diagnosis, rodorazreshayut at time of 36-37 weeks.
- Partial presentation - in this case the placenta completely covers the internal os, some part of it is still open. This type of arrangement is of two types:
- marginal previa - where the placenta covers the lower part of the internal os while in the cervical canal can only recognize fetal membranes;
- lateral previa - the placenta is positioned so that it covers the part of the cervical canal.
In addition to these three main types of abnormal location of the placenta secrete another 2 kinds of partial previa or low:
- Front presentation - in this case some of the placenta is mounted on the front wall of the uterus.
- Rear previa - a large part of the placenta is localized on the back wall of the uterus.
These two types of arrangement are not considered pathologyand do not pose a threat to the successful completion of delivery. In most cases, the placenta during growth is pulled to the bottom of the uterus at delivery and takes the normal position.
Causes of abnormal location of the placenta
When the fetal egg enters the uterine cavity, itHe chooses the safest and most favorable place for his growth and development. Such a site is one in which the endometrial layer is higher, there are no scars or formations. Sometimes this site is in the segment in which further development of the fetus will lead to an abnormal location of the placenta. The reasons that lead to this fastening of the egg are characterized by several factors. Doctors combined these factors in 2 groups:
- Factors that depend on the health of the expectant mother. These include:
- operations, which suffered the woman before the pregnancy - abortion surgical and medical, Caesarean section, curettage on the testimony, or the removal of fibroids uterine fibroids, Removal of malignant tumors, manual intervention at a previous birth, and any other surgical interventions, which can leave scars on the lining of the uterus;
- fibroids and fibroids;
- endometriosis (Proliferation of endometrial cells);
- chronic and acute endometritis;
- uterine pathology (hypoplasia, abnormal structure);
- chronic cervical incompetence;
- multiple births (more than 3);
- abnormal structure of the cervix (bend) and inflammatory processes of the cervix caused by infections (dysplasia);
- alcohol abuse and smoking;
- Women age 35 and older;
- Other diseases associated with impaired blood supply, which is why there is stagnation in the pelvis.
- delayed implantation of the ovum in the uterine after his omission in the uterus.
Symptoms and signs of placenta previa
Diagnosis of this disease is carried out on the basis of clinical manifestations and additional research:
- If the doctor at survey suspected abnormal location of the placenta, it should send a woman to US. Bimanual examination of the vagina is not recommended to carry out in order to avoid bleeding, which can cause premature labor.
- In case of failure of the ultrasound the doctor must be very careful to carry out inspection of the vagina of a pregnant. If the diagnosis is confirmed, a woman urgently hospitalized.
Methods of treatment of placenta previa
Treatments are chosen depending on several factors:
- If a strong bleeding in late pregnancy is not maintained, and the resort to surgical delivery - caesarean section.
- If the bleeding starts after 24 weeks, but there is a threat to the life of the expectant mother, also held an emergency surgical delivery.
- With scant bleeding that occurs after 24 weeks and ends in itself, a woman sent to hospital. She carried out the following types of therapy:
- antispasmodics and relaxing drugs are administered intravenously or intramuscularly (No-spa. Papaverine. Magnesia);
- appointed in violation of gas exchange Curantil. ascorutinLiposoluble tableted or vitamin E, folic acid;
- vitamin B group administered intramuscularly;
- iron supplements to increase hemoglobin (Ferumleks, Totem) plus a special diet consisting of iron-rich foods;
- in addition to the treatment of women with medicines assigned bed rest. No load, stress and nervous breakdowns should not be.
In addition, women with this diagnosis is contraindicated in sex of any kind to prevent uterine contractions.
To avoid complications during pregnancy, women should monitor their health from his youth:
- Remember that frequent hypothermia lead to inflammation in the pelvic organs.
- A woman should live a healthy lifestyle, do not smoke, take drugs, avoid casual sex to avoid sexually transmitted infections.
- Our website recommends to be examined by experts to detect chronic diseases, which may adversely affect the pregnancy.
- Every girl should know that early abortions can lead to any pathology during pregnancy.