Mechanism of action of drugs
The human body responds to a variety ofinfection by generating immune responses. This is a complex process in which cells in the body communicate with each other. This interaction is regulated by the so-called cytokines - protein molecules specific nature. By themselves, these molecules have no effect on the virus, but they can transmit information between cells in the body, allowing our body generates an immune response to the presence of foreign antigen. Interferon is one such cytokine.
In medicine, there are three types of these molecules: interferon alpha, beta and gamma. They have some differences, but each of them in one degree or another has on the body effects, which we describe below:
- The antiviral effect of interferons is duein that they prevent the establishment of viral RNA molecules in cells, and also inhibit the production of proteins that make up the outer shell of foreign antigens.
- Immunomodulating properties of interferon-based preparations due to the fact that these proteins regulate interactions between cells of the organism itself, causing them to better recognize the virus.
- Antitumor effect - another featureinterferons. These agents are able to slow down or completely stop the development of cells, making interferon drugs have long been used as a therapy for cancer. Antitumor effect of these proteins can be direct or indirect type. The direct effect is that the drug can influence directly on malignant tumors by inhibiting their growth. The indirect effect of interferon is aimed at increasing the ability of macrophages and lymphocytes in the blood to detect foreign genes and destroy them.
- The antiproliferative effect - the abilityinterferons inhibit the growth of cells, thereby inhibiting proliferation of tumors in the body. This property consists in that the interferon molecules inhibit generation of RNA and proteins in cells, and also prevent the overgrowth of tissues.
There is a 2-generation-based preparationsinterferon. The first generation has a natural origin, that is, the medicine is extracted from the blood. Human leukocyte interferon is a dry powder form, which is packaged in separate vials. This powder can subsequently make solutions for instillation or inhalations in the nose. It should be noted that the method of production of the drug is considered expensive and insufficiently effective, so the end of the twentieth century were invented drugs of the second generation. They are produced by microbial synthesis of relatively inexpensive feedstocks. Thus raw bacteria appear to different strains Pichia pastoris, Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli.
Indications for use of the drug
In the event you have any diseasenot self-medicate. Be sure to visit the doctor, who on the basis of general examination and necessary tests will diagnose and prescribe necessary Interferon. Depending on severity of the disease, as well as on the individual characteristics of the patient, the dose may vary somewhat. Below is our site will some general recommendations about medication dosages:
- at colds and flu, accompanied by runny nose, A drug used intranasally. To prepare a solution Interferon vial is opened and it is added to 2 ml of water at room temperature. Content thoroughly shaken until the powder is completely dissolved. In each nostril 5 drops dripping the solution obtained about 5 times per day. The interval between treatments should be at least 2 hours, the course of treatment - 2-3 days.
- At the first signs SARS Interferon be used in the form of suppositories. They are administered rectally twice a day, with the dosage of the active ingredient in the medicine must be appropriate to the age of the patient.
- A good remedy for colds and fluInterferon considered inhalation solution. To do this, take 2 capsules of the preparation and dissolve the contents in 10 ml of water temperature not higher than 37 ° C. To make inhalation is best to use a special device that is purchased at a pharmacy. Commit procedure twice a day, morning and evening.
As for serious diseases, the dosage may then be as follows:
- Hairy Cell Leukemia treated using interferons, appointing a day for at least 3 million. IU drug. The course of treatment can range from 16 to 24 weeks.
- Therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-infected individuals involves the use of a dose of 3-18 million. IU per day.
- In chronic myelogenous leukemia prescribers in the amount of 3-9 million. IU per day, duration of treatment is 2-3 months.
- Interferon treatment of melanoma is performed for 8-12 weeks, the dose of medication 18 Mill. IU three times per week.
- Hepatitis B chronic stage designate 4.5mln. IU three times a week for up to six months. Treatment of hepatitis C in the first three months of exercise dose of the drug, is 6 million. IU every three days. In the next number of drugs reduce by half three months.
Contraindications and side effects of Interferon
mymedinform.com allocated are contraindications to the use of drugs based on interferon:
- Allergic reactions to the presence of interferon alpha, chicken protein or certain antibiotics.
- Epilepsy, Violations of the central nervous system.
- Diseases of the liver, kidney, thyroid, not responding to standard therapy.
- Severe heart disease.
- Autoimmune hepatitis.
Patients receiving different sedatives or sleeping pills and painkillers opioid nature prescribe Interferon with great care.
Let's look at what side effects can have on the body of the tool:
- Violations of the gastrointestinal tract: diarrhea. nausea, Vomiting, loss of appetite. Occasionally there may be problems in the liver.
- Skin reactions: dermatitis, dry epidermis, slight hair loss.
- In the process of receiving interferon in patient symptoms similar to flu symptoms may occur: increased temperature, Chills, headache and pain in the muscles, general weakness.
- Sometimes the side effects affecting the cardiovascular system, the patient has an arrhythmia, or lowering blood pressure.
- In some cases, there may be a violation of muscular motility, drowsiness, impaired consciousness.
Generally, the use of the drug within the permissible doses did not cause any side effects.