Many moms and dads are delighted chubbycheeks, folds on the hands and feet of her little toddler. But the kid is growing, and loving parents and compassionate grandmother still hard to feed their beloved child cakes, muffins, rolls, pies with various fillings and other goodies ... And so the child is more and more gaining weight, in the kindergarten and school, his teasing peers, naming " balls »,« Pukhlikov "," hamster "," fat man "... a lot of moral and physical suffering has to bear children, burdened by obesity or increased body weight. If your family is not spared this problem, our website is recommended to treat it carefully and seriously. This article will help parents calculate whether overweight have their child, to understand what are the causes of its origin, what are the potential complications. We talk about how to prevent obesity.
Unfortunately, obesity in children at present -a very common phenomenon. Statistics show that in Russia 30% of children aged 5 to 7 years have been above normal weight and obesity varying degrees. Studies show that 61% of US residents have an excess of body weight, in Russia, Germany, Great Britain - from 50 to 54%, in Japan and China - 15% of the population. Polls indicate that only 30% of mothers see to it that there is proper nutrition for their children. In many families as there is an erroneous belief that a complete child - a healthy baby. Doctors say three of the critical period (stage), when there is a particular risk and more frequent cases of obesity: early age (from birth to 3 years), pre-school age (5 to 7 years) and adolescence (12 to 16 years ), is an important stage of puberty and rearrangements in the body.
How to calculate the weight of a normal child
the child's body weight depends on the sex, height,age, hereditary factors, diet, health. In appearance it is difficult to say, well-fed child or his obesity. Here is a special formula that parents might consider a normal weight of years old to seven years and to decide on this issue. To calculate the necessary number of years a child is multiplied by 2, and add the product to 8. And then compare that number to the actual weight of a son or daughter. But just to say, whether the parents worry about the weight of the child or not, the doctor can only. Doctors have a lot of special centile tables that take into account gender, age and height. These tables allow you to accurately determine even the degree of obesity. In total there are four degrees. Tables and updated height and weight standards of children if you want easy to find on the Internet.
Obesity in children is divided into alimentary and exchange depending on its cause.
- Alimentary obesity occurs due to improper diet and sedentary conduct (passive) way of life.
- Exchange (endocrine) obesity is due to leakage in the body of diseases of the endocrine glands - the thyroid, pancreas, adrenal glands, ovaries (in girls).
The exact reasons for the formation of excess weightidentifies and establishes a qualified specialist, examined the child, talked to his parents and get some survey data. But suppose the reason may be, based on some criteria that accompany overweight:
- When not only the child, but also at least oneof the parents also noted the excessive weight, it can be assumed that in the diet of this family are prevalent high-calorie foods rich in fats and carbohydrates (sweets, pastries). This is the case of alimentary obesity.
- When a child plays for a long timecomputer, watching movies on TV, little moves and almost did not walk in the street with the other children, it says a clear imbalance between the energy produced and consumed.
- In infants overweight appears when administered to the wrong foods, abundant in carbohydrates and lipids.
- If overweight had a baby alreadyat birth, and even add to this: the delay in the development of late been formed ability to keep the head, sitting, walking, long teeth to erupt, there is often swelling of the face, it is necessary to pay attention to the thyroid gland and the production of its hormones. The symptoms and obesity may be signs of hypothyroidism, that is a lack of thyroid function.
- Adding muscle weakness, mental retardation, congenital squint talk about genetic diseases such as Down syndrome and other genetic pathologies.
- If fat student has a bad performance, he complains of drowsiness, fatigue, dry skin and constipationThis may be due to iodine deficiency and dysfunction of the thyroid gland.
- When fat is stored mainly on the face,neck and abdomen, and with the appearance of stretch marks purple cheeks bright pink, and her arms and legs thin, it is necessary to check the adrenal glands and the amount of glucocorticoids.
- Sometimes obesity arises after injuries,concussions and brain inflammation (encephalitis, meningitis), then it is necessary to examine the pituitary gland. This gland controls the operation of all other glands of the body. A disadvantage of the pituitary gland may also be the cause of obesity. Symptoms of increased pressure within the skull indicate a brain tumor, and because of this, too, there are disturbances in the metabolic processes.
As you can see, only the additional inspection and analysis can help identify the cause of obesity.
Harmful whether overweight children? Yes, obesity can lead to such serious diseases, not specific to childhood and adolescence:
- hypertension, Atherosclerosis, angina pectoris, heart failure;
- disturbed sleep - there are occasional pauses in breathing, snore;
- steatosis, often leading to cirrhosis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, Constipation, hemorrhoids;
- a lot of weight, "crushes" on the skeleton, resulting in joint deformity, destruction of cartilage, knee pain, flat feet;
- lack of insulin leads to diabetes, For developing type II;
- these children and adolescents have few friends, they have to be socially excluded, deficient communication, they do not understand the hurt that may result in their further life to the depression, alcoholism;
- women, from an early age are overweight, greater risk infertility.
The main diagnostic methods
To identify the exact causes of overweight doctor can give direction to the tests and examinations:
- Analysis for blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and other indicators which indicate the presence or absence of liver diseases, diabetes;
- Analysis of urine and blood in the amount of hormones made in cases where the doctor suspects a child's endocrine system diseases;
- to exclude pituitary tumor or disease processes doctor prescribes an MRI or CT scan, MRI and CT for short.
How to prevent the emergence of excess weight in a child?
Of course, the fight against obesity - a processlong, it depends on the reasons which establish the doctor, contact with the child and his parents. In the future, it is necessary to strictly comply with all recommendations of the physician to achieve a stable result. Basic principles of treatment include individually tailored diet feasible exercise, lifestyle changes, in some cases - drug treatment or surgery.
- As a rule, dietitian, considering the characteristics of the child and the age, gives parents all the necessary advice on diet, calculate how much you need a little fat to the patient, carbohydrates, Protein, vitamins and minerals. Even mom kid to a year, having already overweight, the pediatrician will advise what cereal and infant formula administered to the lure, but from what should be is abandoned. From an early age accustom his plump baby food, in which a little sugar. As a sweetener, useful plant - Stevia. Welcome in the diet vegetables (zucchini, cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, green beans, carrots), herbs, fruit with a little sugar and calories (currants, blueberries, raspberries, sea buckthorn). Less cook potatoes, flour dishes. Pasta is sometimes allowed, but wholemeal wheat varieties. In some instances, it helps reduce the weight of the transition to separate power supply. For example, do not apply to fish and cutletthe usual mashed potatoes, and a side dish of vegetables in season. Do not forget about the bran, improve digestion and elimination of unnecessary from the intestines. Try to limit the full-bodied children in cookies, candy, cakes chocolate, ice cream and other sweet pastry goodies. A growing body is constantly in need of lean meat (beef, poultry), fish and low-fat cottage cheese. But the sour cream and cream can be given only occasionally. Eliminate from your diet refractory fat - pork, mutton fat, margarine. All of this is poorly absorbed by the body and deposited "in reserve". Salads more expedient to refuel vegetable oils. Encourage your toddler to eat slowly, chewing well. When not in a hurry, the feeling of fullness occurs quickly. Let's eat the fat child 5-6 times a day, but in small portions. Early in the morning is required breakfastHe will charge the energy and vivacity, high-calorierational use dishes in the morning and in the evening useful light food. Do not feed your child for the night, dinner is appropriate to hold up to 3 hours before bedtime.
- It is impossible to lose weight without exercise. Parents should try to pick up the child classes, which will be interesting and useful to him. This can be swimming, aerobics, athletics, football, tennis, gymnastics or other sections. Organize a plurality of mobile games, even desirable, that they were carried out in the open air - in the woods, a park, an outdoor stadium. Parents themselves should be an example for children. You can run the whole family at the mall to do cycling, swimming pool, play badminton or volleyball on the banks of the river in the summer or skiing on snow-covered forest. Then it combines a lot of pleasant experiences and a set of measures to improve health.
- A child with overweight is in need ofsupport and understanding from parents. Important and friendly atmosphere in the family. When a child is complex about weight loss or has symptoms of depression, it is advisable to consult with the therapist or a good psychologist. Often the cause of extra kilos is psychological.
- Drug therapy. Many adults have resorted to drugs for reduce appetite and dropping excess weight. But the impact of these drugs on children's or teen body is little data. Therefore, doctors are currently trying not to appoint young patients serious drugs. If the cause of obesity are endocrine disorders, the diet, the use of the dietary mineral products and drugs help to correct the work of the endocrine glands.
- For surgical operations begin ifthe cause of weight gain is a pituitary tumor, requiring its removal. Only in extreme cases, in which is vital to make the surgical treatment of obesity in children, resorted to this method. A section surgery, dealing with such operations is called bariatric.
It is important for parents to understand that you can notoverfeed your favorite child. MirSovetov convinced that proper nutrition and active lifestyle will help prevent obesity. Do not abuse the children, if they are still overweight. When some parents call their children clumsy sluggishness, fat, trying to coerce them to losing weight, they make the mistake of putting traumatized son or daughter of a lifetime. Right action will be to find the causes of obesity, support your child, consult and comply with the recommendations of experts, to help solve this problem. Follow proper nutrition in their families, and the weight of children, so that they grew cheerful, slim and healthy!