General information about the disease
Short called bronchiectasisthree letters - BAB. Mutated bronchi pulmonologists called bronchiectasis and bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis annually affects approximately 0.5-1.5% of the population. Its development occurs mainly in children and young people, that is, in the age group of 5 to 25 years. In adulthood, the development of bronchiectasis are more prone to those who live in cold, wet regions, working in hazardous industries, as well as smokers. When the disease is constantly relapses (repetitions) bronchopulmonary infections. His indispensable "satellite" - cough with phlegm. Bronchi can be mutated in one segment or one lobe of the lung. Heavier version - wide distribution. The process may be one-way or two-way (localization specifies Segment). There are several forms of BAB:
- Light - exacerbations occur once or twice a year. During the period of stable remission people feel quite healthy and functional.
- Severe - acute repeated every season,they are longer. The day may separate purulent sputum in an amount of from 50 to 200 milliliters. And even when the disease temporarily recedes, the patient remains moderate shortness of breath, recurrent cough, his ability to work is reduced.
- Heavy - exacerbation frequent, prolonged, with increasing temperature body. The sputum is often a putrid odor. short period of remission.
- Is complicated - it is typical for the accession of complications such as cardiopulmonary insufficiency, nephritis, renal amyloidosis, liver, pulmonary heart disease, pulmonary hemorrhage, anemia, Empyema.
Other criteria, which are classified BAB:
- at the time of occurrence - congenital or acquired;
- the structure can be saccular bronchiectasis, fusiform (varicose), cylindrical or mixed;
- the clinical course distinguish these three (or four) stages: bronhiticheskuyu expressed manifestations, complications (not at all ill) and the period of decay of the disease.
Why there is bronchiectasis?
First, with the help of tools the doctor spends percussion and auscultation.
When percussion (analyzing sound effects when tapped) Dr. notice dullness or tympanitis (swelling associated with the accumulation of gases).
Auscultation show up crackles and rigid breathing (listening to sounds at work authorities).
Complete blood count shows that white blood cells increased, erythrocyte sedimentation rate accelerated.
We also study the sputum, sowing is done, to identify infectious agent. Smears allow to study composition.
Chest x-ray done. Typically, it shows that the bronchi are dilated.
Bronchography (used contrast agent for X-ray) - this study to determine the shape of the expansion and the place where it is available.
Bronchoscopy - allows using an endoscope equipped with a special camera to inspect the bronchial tree.
Computed tomography - helps the doctor to clarify the localization of the pathological process, expand the size of bronchiectasis.
Spirometry and peak flow meter - can determine the degree of respiratory failure.
Pulmonologists can use two ways to combat the disease: conservative and operative.
During an exacerbation BEB all efforts are directed to the reorganization of the bronchi, the suppression in these foci of purulent inflammation. The most common respiratory therapists are assigned into a vein, muscle or endobronchial:
- Amoxiclav, Augmentin;
- Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime, Cefazolin;
- Moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin.
Before choosing antibiotic necessarily need to conduct research showing which drugs sensitive pathogen infection.
To prevent the growth of fungal flora, long-term use of antibiotics prescribed antifungals (eg, fluconazole).
In order to facilitate breathing when clogged with mucus and pus discharged bronchi bronchodilators (Ventolin, Atrovent)
After examining doctor can immunogramappoint immunostimulatory drugs. Preference is given to funds, which is composed of echinacea is possible to assign the thymus preparations of human immunoglobulin.
If the disease heavy, the steroids (usually prednisolone) will be assigned.
At high temperatures may NSAIDs (e.g. paracetamol, Brufen, Nurofen).
Can benefit from:
- alkaline drinking;
- breathing exercises;
- infusion therapy (Reopoliglyukin, Sorbilakt, Reosorbilakt);
- ultrasonic sanitation;
- therapeutic bronchoscopy (removal of purulent accumulations, bronchi lavage, administration directly into the bronchial tree of medicines);
- bronchoalveolar lavage (bronchi lavage procedure);
- positional drainage (phlegm comes out better, if a person is in a certain position, it depends on where localized bronchiectasis);
- using nebulizers (Ultrasonic or compression, is a modern inhalers);
- massage area of the chest (vibration).
Contribute discharge of these folk remedies may sputum respiratory tract:
- It is necessary to squeeze out of the root of black radish juice and mix with honey (to take it as much juice and radish). Takes to make a mixture three times a day on a tablespoon.
- Squeeze the juice from the turnip. Eat it should be six times per day on a tablespoon.
- From the leaves of plantain or aloe squeeze out the juice. Then mix it with the same amount of lime (or acacia) honey. Dosage: three times a day by teaspoonful.
- Add a teaspoon badger fat 100 ml of milk (warm) and drink.
- Before bedtime cup of tea instead make yourself infusion of Icelandic moss.
- Can come to the aid of medicinal infusions and decoctions of elecampane roots, leaves mother and stepmother, pine buds, shoots of wild rosemary, thyme grass.
If there was coughing up blood, it can be brewed yarrow, knot-grass, nettle, shepherd's purse.
As an immunostimulatory and vitaminized means make a thermos drink from the hips.
The importance of improving the patient's conditionplays and nutrition. It is desirable that it was varied, complete, with lots of vitamins and proteins. The diet must be present: fish, meat dishes, buckwheat, eggs, cheese, figs and other fruits, vegetables, fruit drinks, juices, berries in season.
By surgery recourse at anydegree of severity of illness (unless contraindicated), the patient's age should not exceed 40 years. If the patient is older, then the operation start if there are complications, life-threatening. Specialist remove the affected lung or segment share. The main thing that the rest of the bronchi were able to fully ensure the breathing process.
In severe cases, there is a possibility:
- respiratory failure;
- pulmonary hemorrhage;
- blood poisoning (sepsis).
To avoid bronchiectasis,endeavor to treat viral or caused infectious disease of the respiratory tract. Strengthen your immunity, dress warmly in cold seasons. Reduce the number of relapses helps BEB spa treatment.