According to scientific research, the diseaseIt observed mainly in women (10-25 times more often than men) aged 30 to 60 years. Very rarely it occurs in children. Today, in fact, there are no data on the spread of the disease at an early age. For example, according to Japanese scientists, in 1997, 100 thousand children population morbidity was 0.04.
Unfortunately, the exact causes of Sjogren's disease beforenot fully understood. We only know that even in 1933 a well-known ophthalmologist Sjogren from Sweden described the symptoms that accompany the disease - dry mucous membranes and eyes, causing discomfort for the person.
Most scientists argue that the disease appears as a result of pathological reactions of human immune system to retroviral infection.
Manifestations of the disease
Nowadays there are two types of symptoms:
They allow us to determine the presence of Sjogren's disease. Let us consider in more detail each of them.
It is worth noting that in the ferrous formsecreting glands are affected, because of which reduced their functional activity. In other words, your eyes start to hurt due to reducing the amount of tear fluid, and as a result there is a burning sensation and dryness. Patients tell us that there is a feeling that the sand gets into your eyes. In some cases the itching and redness of the eyelids and the white viscous fluid can collect in the corners. When aggravation of the disease is reduced even visual acuity, photophobia occurs, as well as narrowing of the eye slits.
In addition to the eye in this disease affects moresalivary glands, causing inflammation that can develop into chronic. The number of salivary glands becomes larger, there is a dry mouth.
Often similar to complications in humanperleches appear on the lips, swollen lymph nodes, dries border of lips. Sometimes people change even facial contours. This is due to the parotid gland that begin to grow. These features are described in the literature as "chipmunk muzzle" or "snout hamster."
It should be noted that dryness of the mouth at the initial stage of the disease can sometimes occur in humans during physical stress or excitement.
But already at an advanced stage the symptomIt becomes more regular. That is, the patient always want to drink during lunch food, and during the conversation to moisten your mouth. This is due to dry tongue and a very meager amount of free saliva, which also has foam and has a viscous state.
The mucous membrane becomes so vulnerable,that it is very easy to injure. Also, it changes its color - from pale pink turns bright pink. In this case, the patient's mouth can become inflamed and covered with a crust.
At the last stage of dry mouthIt increased so that the person is unable to swallow food, swallowing, and sometimes even talk. Lips covered with cracks, language becomes folded, the mouth can orogovet, because it is absolutely free of saliva.
In the nose, there are characteristic crust, and in the auditory tubes - clearance, which could lead to the development of otitis and deafness. The voice then becomes husky, due to the dryness of the throat.
Such infections like pneumonia. sinusitis and recurrent tracheobronchitis often appearSjogren's disease complications. Also, a third of patients have lesions glands of the external genitalia. This is manifested by redness, itching, burning, and vaginal dryness in women.
In some cases, patients complain of excessive dryness of the skin, someone notices decreased sweating.
Many disease may develop into chronic atrophic gastritis with severe secretory deficiency. Since the patient may feel discomfort after meals, accompanied by nausea. belchingSometimes vomiting, pain in the epigastric region.
If a person before the onset of symptoms have been seen pancreatitis (Pancreatic disease), there is a possibility that the digestive system is generally compromised.
The second kind of manifestation of the disease - vnezhelezisty- Sufficiently diverse and is systemic. Almost 10% of patients may appear stiff in the morning, mild muscle weakness, inflammation of the muscles and joint pain.
Some increased supraclavicular, occipital, cervical and submandibular nodes. liver size at times becomes larger.
Half of the patients have lesions of the respiratory tract. They complain mainly on the sore and dry throat, shortness of breath and cough.
Sjogren's disease also affects the blood vessels. On the skin, drumsticks, thighs, and buttocks, and the abdomen may appear bloody rash. They are accompanied by increased temperature, Itching and burning.
One-third of patients suffering from sensory disturbances, and lesions of the trigeminal and facial nerves. On antibiotics, Group B preparations, procaine, andchemicals and sulfonamide allergy may occur. Some products may also be a reaction, so you should be careful, especially in the tasting new dishes.
When treating Sjogren's disease primarily pay attention to the hormones and cytostatic immunosuppressive (cytotoxic agents - agents that block cell division).
If the studies identified in humans moderateviolations of laboratory parameters and the absence of systemic manifestations, then this is definitely the initial stage of the disease, which should be treated with prednisone (5-10 mg / day).
If a more severe stage (late), butsystemic manifestations are still missing, by the same dosage of prednisone was added chlorambucil (2-4 mg / day). After that you can assign these drugs and followed by a long (several years) reception.
As for severe systemic manifestations of the diseaseSjogren's, the most effective treatment is the so-called pulse therapy with the use of high doses of prednisolone and cyclophosphamide (1000 mg 6-Methylprednisolone intravenously daily for three consecutive days) and single intravenous administration of 1000 mg cyclophosphamide. Then, the patient is transferred to a moderate dose of prednisolone (30-40 mg / day) and cyclophosphamide (200 mg intramuscularly 1-2 times per week) in the absence of effects on the liver. This treatment was well tolerated, and most importantly, helps to avoid most of the complications.
In the treatment of patients with necrotizingvasculitis, glomerulonephritis, polyneuritis, mielopoliradikulonevritom, cerebrovasculitises caused by cryoglobulinemia effective pulse therapy in combination with extracorporeal methods. For example, such as hemosorbtion (output of toxic products from the blood), plasmapheresis (plasma removal of part of the body).
If eyes are affected, it recommended local therapy,which aims to eliminate dryness, and preventing the emergence of a secondary infection. At the same time the patient prescribe artificial tears. And depending on the severity of the eye depends on the dosage - from 3 to 10 times a day.
To overcome dry mouth, strengthen the walls of the salivary glands, as well as to improve and restore the mucosal epithelium, prescribe treatment of chronic inflammation of the salivary glands.
Novocaine blockade is used to normalize the secretion and nutrition.
With the development of purulent mumps after introduce antibiotics prescribed antifungal drugs for local use.
In this case, intramuscularly or intravenously administered calcium to reduce the permeability of the ducts.
Oil of sea buckthorn and wild rose is very helpful inredness portion of the lips and mucosal dryness. Well, if you buy the drug enkada (active derivatives of nucleic acids), which has antibacterial properties.
Applications isotonic sodium chloride solution used in the nasal mucosa dryness.
Potassium-iodide jelly will help to reduce the feeling of dryness in the vagina.
In the presence of chronic gastritis prescribed replacement therapy (e.g., hydrochloric acid or natural gastric juice).
If you want to enjoy life, tryalways look after their health. And if there are any signs of the disease should immediately contact a doctor. After all, when time begun treatment will be able to not only slow the disease, but also to get rid of it. And remember, your health is in your hands!